Presentation on theme: "Iodine It is important for two reasons :-"— Presentation transcript:
1Iodine It is important for two reasons :- 1- It has pharmacological actions :- fibrolyticagent , expectorant and bactericidal agent .2- It has a biochemical role in thyroid hormons formation. It is essential for the synthesis of two thyroid hormons .Iodine deficiency result in enlargment of thyroid gland ,characterized by swelling at neck .In which the body attempts to substitute iodinedeficiency by increasing thyroid gland size.Potassium iodide ( 0.01%) is added to table salts to compensate iodine deficiency .
2Thyroid hormons synthesis Iodine in the thyroid gland is found as iodide form( I-) .Peroxidase2 I I2H2O2IHO CH2CHCOOHIINH2I2 + HO CH2CHCOOHDiiodotyrosineNH2ITyrosineHO CH2CHCOOHNH2Monoiodotyrosine
3Thyroxine (T4) I I I I I active I I I I inactive I I HO CH2CHCOOH HO CH2CHCOOHIINH2INH2IDiiodotyrosineDiiodotyrosineIIHO O CH2CHCOOHIIINH2Thyroxine (T4)IIIHO CH2CHCOOHHO O CH2CHCOOHIINH2NH23,5,3, triiodothyronine(T3)DiiodotyrosineactiveIIIHO O CH2CHCOOHHO CH2CHCOOHINH2NH2inactiveMonoiodotyrosine3,3,,5, triiodothyroxine
4Iodine adminstrationOrally used iodine is converted to iodide ion in the intestenal tract : -reductionI I--Uptake of used iodine is governed by three fectors1- Nature of thyroid tissues,uptake of tumorous thyroid tissues is lower than normal.2- High iodide level lowers uptake of iodine dose.3- Thyrotropine level in blood, since it is secreted by anterior pituitary and has effect on using iodine.
5Clinical uses of iodide 1- Improving agent in hyperthyrodism :-a- Acting on lowering the release of the hormon.b- Causing involution of the gland and increasing the bond iodine.c- Usind iodine to remove hyperthyrodism symptoms.2- Fibrolytic agent : -Used in syphlis, fungal infections, actinomycosis and blastomycosis .
6Iodide side effects :- 3- As expectorant : - Iodides are used in treatment of asthma, chronicbronchitis and late stage of acute bronchitis.Iodide side effects :-1- Iodism :- irritative effects on skin and mucosa membrane such as coryza,rashes,headache,conjuvtivitis and laryngitis.2- G.I.effects : nausea,vomiting & diarrhea.3- Used in skin infections requires opening up.
7Official iodine products 1- Iodine : M.WtHeavy gray-black granules. Slightly soluble in H2O.Soluble in chloroform,CCl4 and ether.Lugols, solution : 5 gm iodine and 10 gm KI per 100ml total volume. Dose ml 3 times/day2- Potassium iodide ( KI) , M. wt. 166Colorless crystals, neutral or alkaline to litmus & soluble in H2O ,glycerin and alcohol.KI solution : contains 100gm KI in 100ml solution.Sodium thiosulfate is added to reduce libration of iodide from KI.
8Colorless ,odorless crystals, soluble in H2O ,alcohol & glycerin. 2Na2S2O I Na2S4O NaIDose : oral 0.6 ml / daily3- Sodium Iodide : NaIColorless ,odorless crystals, soluble in H2O ,alcohol & glycerin.Used in hyperthyroid condition.Dose : - oral 300 mg times/dailyIntravenous infusion 1 gm-3gm/daily