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Iodine It is important for two reasons :-

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Presentation on theme: "Iodine It is important for two reasons :-"— Presentation transcript:

1 Iodine It is important for two reasons :-
1- It has pharmacological actions :- fibrolytic agent , expectorant and bactericidal agent . 2- It has a biochemical role in thyroid hormons formation. It is essential for the synthesis of two thyroid hormons . Iodine deficiency result in enlargment of thyroid gland ,characterized by swelling at neck . In which the body attempts to substitute iodine deficiency by increasing thyroid gland size. Potassium iodide ( 0.01%) is added to table salts to compensate iodine deficiency .

2 Thyroid hormons synthesis
Iodine in the thyroid gland is found as iodide form( I-) . Peroxidase 2 I I2 H2O2 I HO CH2CHCOOH I I NH2 I2 + HO CH2CHCOOH Diiodotyrosine NH2 I Tyrosine HO CH2CHCOOH NH2 Monoiodotyrosine

3 Thyroxine (T4) I I I I I active I I I I inactive I I
HO CH2CHCOOH HO CH2CHCOOH I I NH2 I NH2 I Diiodotyrosine Diiodotyrosine I I HO O CH2CHCOOH I I I NH2 Thyroxine (T4) I I I HO CH2CHCOOH HO O CH2CHCOOH I I NH2 NH2 3,5,3, triiodothyronine(T3) Diiodotyrosine active I I I HO O CH2CHCOOH HO CH2CHCOOH I NH2 NH2 inactive Monoiodotyrosine 3,3,,5, triiodothyroxine

4 Iodine adminstration Orally used iodine is converted to iodide ion in the intestenal tract : - reduction I I-- Uptake of used iodine is governed by three fectors 1- Nature of thyroid tissues,uptake of tumorous thyroid tissues is lower than normal. 2- High iodide level lowers uptake of iodine dose. 3- Thyrotropine level in blood, since it is secreted by anterior pituitary and has effect on using iodine.

5 Clinical uses of iodide
1- Improving agent in hyperthyrodism :- a- Acting on lowering the release of the hormon. b- Causing involution of the gland and increasing the bond iodine. c- Usind iodine to remove hyperthyrodism symptoms. 2- Fibrolytic agent : - Used in syphlis, fungal infections, actinomycosis and blastomycosis .

6 Iodide side effects :- 3- As expectorant : -
Iodides are used in treatment of asthma, chronic bronchitis and late stage of acute bronchitis. Iodide side effects :- 1- Iodism :- irritative effects on skin and mucosa membrane such as coryza,rashes,headache, conjuvtivitis and laryngitis. 2- G.I.effects : nausea,vomiting & diarrhea. 3- Used in skin infections requires opening up.

7 Official iodine products
1- Iodine : M.Wt Heavy gray-black granules. Slightly soluble in H2O. Soluble in chloroform,CCl4 and ether. Lugols, solution : 5 gm iodine and 10 gm KI per 100ml total volume. Dose ml 3 times/day 2- Potassium iodide ( KI) , M. wt. 166 Colorless crystals, neutral or alkaline to litmus & soluble in H2O ,glycerin and alcohol. KI solution : contains 100gm KI in 100ml solution. Sodium thiosulfate is added to reduce libration of iodide from KI.

8 Colorless ,odorless crystals, soluble in H2O ,alcohol & glycerin.
2Na2S2O I Na2S4O NaI Dose : oral 0.6 ml / daily 3- Sodium Iodide : NaI Colorless ,odorless crystals, soluble in H2O ,alcohol & glycerin. Used in hyperthyroid condition. Dose : - oral 300 mg times/daily Intravenous infusion 1 gm-3gm/daily


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