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Endocrine. Function Influences growth, metabolism, and homeostasis over prolonged periods Secretes hormone products into interstitial spaces which are.

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Presentation on theme: "Endocrine. Function Influences growth, metabolism, and homeostasis over prolonged periods Secretes hormone products into interstitial spaces which are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Endocrine

2 Function Influences growth, metabolism, and homeostasis over prolonged periods Secretes hormone products into interstitial spaces which are then absorbed into the blood and transported throughout the body Hormonal control is much slower than nervous control, but the effects of the endocrine system are much longer lasting Key Features of Endocrine Glands A rich capillary blood supply is necessary for secretion and reception of hormones Endocrine glands are, by definition, ductless Organelles required to synthesize specific hormones are in great supply

3 Hormone Classifications Amino Acid Derivatives Hormones derived from the amino acid tyrosine Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and thyroxine Polypeptide Hormones Hormones with a peptide structure Insulin, prolactin, NGF, EGF, GH, PTH, TSH, enkephalin, TRH, ADHSteroids Hormones derived from cholesterol Testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, progesterone, estradiol

4 Pituitary Gland Controlled by hypothalamus Infundibulum serves as a communication channel between the hypothalamus and pituitary The hypothalamohypophyseal neural tract is the passageway for two hypothalamic hormones to the posterior pituitary The hypothalamohypophyseal portal system carries hypothalamic hormones that regulate secretion from the anterior pituitary The anterior pituitary secretes hormones that regulate lactation, metabolism, growth, stress response, and reproduction

5 Pituitary Gland A B A: Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary): 1. Pars distalis. 2. Pars intermedia 3. Pars tuberalis B: Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary): 1. Infundibulum 2. Pars nervosa

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7 E A D C B

8 Practice

9 Adenohypophysis A: Chromophobes B: Basophilic chromophils Gonadotrophs– FSH and LH Corticotrophs– ACTH Thyrotrophs– TSH C: Acidophilic chromophils Somatotrophs– GH Mammotrophs– Prolactin

10 A B C

11 Practice

12 Neurohypophysis A A: Pituicytes H: Herring Bodies

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15 Review Fill in the missing hormones secreted from the pituitary or list their respective functions HormoneFunction FSH Causes follicle maturation and testosterone production in leydig cells ACTH Stimulates T3 and T4 secretion from thyroid GH Stimulates mammary glands ADH Smooth muscle contraction and milk letdown LH TSH Prolactin Oxytocin Follicle maturation and spermatogenesis Stimulates adrenal cortex Controls growth Stimulates water resorption

16 Thyroid A B 4 A: Follicular cells B: Parafollicular cells

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19 Parathyroid A: Adipose tissue. C: Capillaries P: Principal or chief cells O: Oxyphil cells

20 A B

21 Practice

22 A B

23 Pancreas A A: Islets of Langerhans contain four different cells: 1. α-cells 2. β-cells 3. δ-cells. 4. PP– cells

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26 Stomach A B Gastrin or G-cells A: Parietal cell. B: Chief cell.

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28 Adrenal Gland ABCD A: Zona glomerulosa B: Zona fasciculata C: Zona reticularis D: Medulla

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31 Practice

32 Clinical Connections

33 Pheochromocytoma Source: Neuroendocrine tumor of the adrenal medulla Results in excessive secretion of catecholamines Diagnosed by measuring plasma or urine levels of catecholamines

34 Enteroendocrine Cell A A: Argentaffin cells B: Central Lacteal B

35 Practice

36 Review Anterior Pituitary FSH LH ACTH TSH GH Prolactin Posterior Pituitary ADH Oxytocin Thyroid T3 and T4 CalcitoninParathyroid PTHPancreas Glucagon Insulin Somatostatin Pancreatic Peptide Stomach GastrinAdrenal Aldosterone Cortisol DHEA Argentaffin Cell CCK Secretin Serotonin Know the following hormones, where they are secreted, their function, and target organ.


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