Presentation on theme: "Gross Anatomy: Review of Autonomics in the Head and Neck"— Presentation transcript:
1 Gross Anatomy: Review of Autonomics in the Head and Neck
2 General principles of autonomic innervation to the structures of the head and neck:
3 Cranial Nerves with Parasympathetic Functional Componenents 1. Olfactory CN I (SVA) Sensory2. Optic CN II (SSA) Sensory3. Oculomotor CN III (GSE, GVE-P) Motor4. Trochlear CN IV (GSE) Motor5. Trigeminal CN V (GSA, SVE) Both6. Abducens CN VI (GSE) Motor7. Facial CN VII (SVE, GSA, SVA, GVA, GVE-P) Both8. Vestibulocochlear CN VIII (SSA, SSE) Sensory9. Glossopharyngeal CN IX (SVE, GSA, SVA, GVA, GVE-P) Both10. Vagus CN X (SVE, GSA, SVA, GVA, GVE-P) Both11. Accessory CN XI (GSE) Motor12. Hypoglossal CN XII (GSE) Motor
4 Head and Neck Parasympathetics – KEY Points CN V is the great sensory nerve to structures of the head and provides a ready-made route to all structures which need to be innervated autonomicallyThe four parasympathetic ganglia [COPS] in the head are “associated” with CN V:V1 (ciliary)V2 (pterygopalatine)V3 (submandibular and otic)Autonomic fibers of CN III, VII, and IX “hitchhike” along these routes to gain their target organs
5 Head and Neck Sympathetics – KEY Points Preganglionic sympathetic axons arise from the IML cell column at T1 – T4Enter the sympathetic chain via white ramiAscend in the sympathetic chainAll preganglionic fibers associate with viscera of the head and neck synapse in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglionTherefore, THERE ARE NO PRE-GANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC FIBERS IN THE HEAD
7 Postganglionics leave the Superior Cervical Ganglion as the: External carotid nerve: located on the surface of the external carotid artery; distributes to superficial viscera of the head/neck via branches of this vesselInternal carotid nerve: located on the surface of the internal carotid artery; forms a plexus that contributes branches to the:Glands in the middle ear (caroticotympanic branches)lacrimal gland and mucous glands of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx [deep petrosal nerve joins the nerve of the pterygoid canal which in turn distribute via branches of maxillary nerve].Dilator pupillae muscle [cavernous plexus gives rise to the sympathetic root of the ciliary ganglion that distribute by short ciliary nerves].
8 Autonomic innervation of the ciliary and pupillary muscles:
9 Parasympathetic Innervation The ciliary ganglion:has sensory, sympathetic and motor rootsreceives preganglionic parasympathetic axons (from the brainstem/CN III) via the motor rootgives rise to postsynaptic axons that travel in short ciliary nerves to the ciliary muscle and sphincter pupillae
10 Sympathetic Innervation postganglionic sympathetic fibers arise from the superior cervical ganglion and travel along the cavernous plexusreach the orbit on ophthalmic artery or CN IIItraverse the ciliary ganglion without synapseInnervates the dilator pupillae muscle and superior tarsal muscle
12 Autonomic innervation of the mucous glands of the head:
13 Parasympathetic Innervation preganglionic parasympathetic fibers course in CN VII (greater petrosal nerve nerve of the pterygoid canal)synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglionpostganglionic parasympathetic fibers “hitchhike” along branches of CN V2 to reach the lacrimal, oral, palatal, nasal and pharyngeal mucous glands
15 Sympathetic Innervation postganglionic sympathetic fibers arise from the superior cervical ganglion and travel in the cavernous plexusforms the deep petrosal nerve and joins the greater petrosal nerve to form the nerve of the pterygoid canalfibers traverse the pterygopalatine ganglion without synapsereach the viscera along branches of the maxillary artery and/or follow branches of CN V
18 Parasympathetic Innervation preganglionic parasympathetic fibers course in CN VII (chorda tympani)joins the lingual nerve in the infratemporal fossasynapse in the submandibular ganglionpostganglionic parasympathetic fibers innervate submandibular, sublingual and lingual salivary glands
19 Parasympathetic Innervation preganglionic parasympathetic fibers course in CN IX (tympanic nerve lesser petrosal nerve)synapse in the otic ganglionpostganglionic parasympathetic fibers travel along CN V3 (auriculotemporal nerve) to innervate the parotid gland
21 Sympathetic Innervation postganglionic sympathetic fibers arise from the superior cervical ganglion and travel in the external carotid plexustravel on the facial arteryreach the viscera along branches CN V3
22 Autonomic innervation of the smooth muscle and glands in the pharynx and larynx:
23 Parasympathetic Innervation preganglionic parasympathetic fibers course in CN X (pharyngeal branches, internal laryngeal nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve)enter pharynx and larynx to synapse in intramural ganglia
24 Sympathetic Innervation T1 – T4Sympathetic Innervationpreganglionic sympathetic fibers arise in the IML cell column (T1 – 4)synapse in the sympathetic chainlaryngopharyngeal branches
25 A 24-year-old female presents to the emergency room 5-days after a bar fight with the chief complaints of a “messed up hand and funny eye”. Physical examination reveals the images below.Where is the injury?What is the diagnosis?What other signs would most likely be present on PE?
26 A 54-year-old male presents to the emergency room with the chief complaints of headache and hoarseness. Physical examination reveals a weak gag reflex and the image below.Where is the injury?What is the diagnosis?Horner’s Syndrome also occurs in:cervical spinal cord injuryBrainstem strokesapical lung tumors
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