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 Qualitative research is grounded in the data, in the sense that it is the data that provide the theory rather than to confirm or disconfirm it, so in.

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Presentation on theme: " Qualitative research is grounded in the data, in the sense that it is the data that provide the theory rather than to confirm or disconfirm it, so in."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Qualitative research is grounded in the data, in the sense that it is the data that provide the theory rather than to confirm or disconfirm it, so in this sense it may be described as grounded. However, although the research process works from data to theory rather than vice versa, the aim of the process is to generate a theory.

3  Grounded theory is similar to an ethnographical approach of collecting rich data through interviews and observation, although other data may also be sued such as questionnaires and texts, visuals, documents.  Inductive approach: allows theory to develop from the data.

4  A typical grounded theory research project may involve a study of the experience of the first few weeks at a language school from a learners point of view,. Learners may be asked open ended questions about their views on language learning, their experience arriving at the new school, and the approaches to language teaching and learning that they found there.  What may emerge is a theory about how learners come to hold certain views about language learning. The theory comes from the data.

5  Because grounded theory does not demand the extensive data gathering that a full ethnographic study would require, but still offers potential for developing an understanding of what is happening in classrooms, it may have appeal to TESOL researchers. Birks, M Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide. Sage. Corbin, J Basics of Qualitative Research. Sage.

6  The computer’s utility in managing large volumes of data frees the researcher to spend more time and mental energy on the actual analysis of data rather than the tracking of it. The computer as a kind of electronic filing cabinet which aids theory building or the emergence of theory.

7  The actual theory building, though, cannot be done without human intelligence. QSR N6, other similar packages, cannot make the jump from ordered data to theory.  The systematic way of organising data offered by computers, combined with the researcher’s own research questions may help to clarify and tentatively set out some ideas for building theory.

8  Coding is a procedure that disaggregates the data, breaks it down into manageable segments, and identifies or names those segments…coding is often classified as relatively descriptive or analytical and explanatory depending on the degree of interpretation involved.

9  Financial  Training  Alienate from Data  Constraints of Coding.

10  Omitting role play from TG lesson  Reduction of teachers’ comments from interview transcripts

11  T1. Artificial, events unlikely to happen.  T2. Artificial and boring.  T3. Outside books, not SB, are often better role-play, more fun.  T4. Chinese students passive, not responsive. Better with experience.  T5. Relatively new teacher, not comfortable with role-play, students not keen. Roleplay needs good pairs of students to take part.  T6. Certain nationalities not keen, certain personalities. Certain combinations of nationalities not good, i.e.Japanese/Arabic. Some students inexperienced with Western teaching styles. Limited number of times one can record role play, no guidance in TG for this.Monitoring difficult.

12  T7. Some nationalities, combinations not good. Some, Spanish/Italian better. Adapt to different speaking activity.  T8. Student numbers not always good for this, some shy, hate role-play. Teacher not always comfortable with it. May be more appropriate for younger students, middle aged students don’t always like it. Depends on group. Difficult to monitor. Physical classroom constraints, crowding.  T9. TG doesn’t give enough/much advice on role play.  T10. Too noisy.

13  Artificial. T1, 2.  2. Boring, little fun, students dislike it. T2,3,4,5,6,8,9.  3. Students not good at it, unused to it. T4,5,6.  4. Teacher not comfortable, unused to it. T5,9.  5. Certain nationalities, combinations, personalities not comfortable. T4,6,7.  6. Role play needs students who are good at it, certain numbers of students. T5,6,7,8.  7. Role play better for younger students. T8.

14  8. TG gives inadequate advice. T6,9.  9. Other sources role-play more fun. T3.  10. Difficult to monitor, too noisy. T6,8, 10.  11. Physical classroom constraints. T8.  12. Limited times record it. T6.  13. Depends on the group. T8.

15  INTERNAL CATEGORY.  Ai. TG content. 1,2,8,9.  2.EXTERNAL CATEGORY.  Bi. Students’ response. 2,3,5,7,13.  Bii. Teachers’ response. 1,2,4,6.   3.MEDIATION.  Ci. Difficult to monitor/classroom constraints. 10, 11.  Cii. Time constraints. 12.

16  Bazeley, P Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo. Sage  Gibbs, G Qualitative Data Analysis: Explorations with Nvivo. Open University  Fielding, N Computer Analysis and Qualitative Research. Sage.  Denzin, N. & Y.Lincoln Handbook of Qualitative Research. Sage  Good, J.R.P Discovering a Method for Analysis and Development of Teachers Guides Contribution to Lesson Content. Essex PhD, pp.65-76, also chap 3. [in Spicer, Main Library]

17  1. In simple terms a critical review is an academic review of an article that offers both a summary and critical comment.  2. A critical literature review, instead of simply one that reports on research, is an important part of preparing to write a dissertation or extended piece of research.  3. A critical review will analyse a text and evaluate its relevance to the needs of the dissertation.  To interpret the text.  To analyse the main findings in relation to the methodology that lead to them. So it needs the ability to read and think critically.  4. A critical review is not just a summary, it is an evaluation of what an author has said about a subject. It is critical in the sense that it:  a] Considers the validity and accuracy of the author’s claims.  b] Considers the limitations of the author’s point of view.  c] Identifies other valid points of view, from other research, in relation to article.

18  Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the article.  Evaluate the contribution of the article to the field of research. The So What???Question.  6. Planning the review.   A] Before you finally select an article to review, gain an initial overview by scanning the title, abstract, introduction, subheadings and conclusion.  B] Read/re-read the article, highlighting main ideas, possibly a flow chart may help.  C] Be clear about the purpose of the article, the methods used to obtain the data, and to analyse the data, and their appropriateness for the research topic. The main findings. 

19  Introduction.  Identify purpose of article.  Summarise main issues raised by the author   Body  Analyse key points of text.  Evaluate the validity of the conclusions, and the strengths and weaknesses of claims made in the article.  Clearly distinguish between the opinions of the author and your own opinions.   Conclusion.  Summarise the evaluation of the text.  Make a judgment about the credibility of claims/findings in the article. 


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