Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Main Themes of Microbiology Chapter 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc) Permission required for reproduction or display.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Main Themes of Microbiology Chapter 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc) Permission required for reproduction or display."— Presentation transcript:

1 Main Themes of Microbiology Chapter 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc) Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Learning Goals: Define microorganism and characterize the main groups of microorganisms. Describe the basic cellular structure of microbes and differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. Explain the importance of studying microbes. Describe the role and impact of microbes on the Earth. Define the main branches of Microbiology Summarize the relative burden of human disease caused by microbes.

3 What is Microbiology? micron = small and biologia = study of living things Microbiology = study of small living things – How small is “small”? – What do we really mean by living? Working definition: Study of entities too small to be seen with the unaided human eye. (< 0.2 mm = 200 µm = 200,000 nm)

4 Size Range of Microbes (1 Angstrom) 1 nm 10 nm 200 nm 1 mm Hydrogen atom Diameter of DNA Large protein Flagellum Poliovirus AIDS virus Mycoplasma bacteria Rickettsia bacteria Red blood cell Ameba White blood cell 0.1 nm Louse Macroscopic Microscopic 100 nm Hepatitis B virus Nucleus Range of Human eye Range of light microscope Range of electron microscope Require special microscopes 10mm 100mm 1mm Colonial alga (Pediastrum) Most bacteria fall between 1 to 10 m µ in size Amino acid (small molecule) Poxvirus Coccus-shaped bacteria (Staphylococcus) Rod-shaped bacteria (Escherichia coli) Reproductive structure of bread mold Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

5 Relative Microbial Sizes If poliovirus (27 nm) was the size of a quarter… Staphylococcus aureus (0.8 µm)Beach ball Escherichia coli (0.7 x 2.5 µm)Adult human Saccharomyces cerevisiae (5 µm)Elephant Paramecium caudatum (50 x 250 µm)Large yard (2.5 acres) Amoeba proteus (800 µm)10 city blocks (100 acres)

6 Major Groups of Microorganisms Bacteria Protozoa Algae Helminths Fungi Viruses

7 Cell Structure of Microorganisms 7 Bacteria Algae Protozoa Helminths Fungi Viruses

8 Page 26 8

9 Characteristics of Living Organisms Metabolism – enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions Bacillus cereus – Yes Bacteriophage T4 – No Reproduction – progeny formed sexually or asexually Bacillus cereus – YesBacteriophage T4 – Yes Differentiation – different cell types can occur Bacillus cereus – YesBacteriophage T4 – No Communication – signaling within and between cells Bacillus cereus – YesBacteriophage T4 – No Locomotion – relative movement of cell or organism Bacillus cereus – YesBacteriophage T4 – No Evolution – genetic change over time Bacillus cereus – YesBacteriophage T4 – Yes

10 Importance of Microbes The earliest organisms in the fossil record Essential reactions in the environment Can be harnessed to work for us Infectious diseases

11 Branches of Microbiology Medical Microbiology Public health Microbiology and Epidemiology Immunology

12 Branches of Microbiology Industrial Microbiology Agricultural Microbiology Environmental Microbiology

13 Biotechnology Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA Technology: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) Bioremediation

14 Microbial Diseases Pathogens: microbes cause infectious diseases

15 Microbiology Disciplines by Organism Microbiologists are sometimes referred to by the type of microbial system that they study Bacteriology: Study of prokaryotes Mycology: Study of fungi Phycology: Study of algae Protozoology: The study of protozoa Virology: The study of viruses

16 Conclusions: Microbiology studies living organisms “too small to be seen by with the naked eye”. They include bacteria, algae, protozoa, fungi, helminths, and viruses. There are two types of cellular structure of microorganisms: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Viruses are not cellular and can be considered particles. Microorganisms have a crucial effect on the life on Earth.

17 Conclusions: Humans manipulate microbes to do work for them in industry, medicine, and in caring for the environment. Microbiology is a complex discipline which includes many branches studying different aspects of microbes Infectious diseases are caused by microbes acting as parasites. There are differences in infectious diseases affecting developing and industrialized countries

18 What Aspects of Microorganisms Will We Study? Cell Structure and Function Cell Growth and Metabolism Microbial Genetics Taxonomy and Evolutionary History Interaction with Living and Non-Living Environment


Download ppt "Main Themes of Microbiology Chapter 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc) Permission required for reproduction or display."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google