2Learning Goals:Define microorganism and characterize the main groups of microorganisms.Describe the basic cellular structure of microbes and differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.Explain the importance of studying microbes. Describe the role and impact of microbes on the Earth.Define the main branches of MicrobiologySummarize the relative burden of human disease caused by microbes.
3The Main Themes of Microbiology Microbiology: A Systems ApproachWhat is Microbiology?micron = small and biologia = study of living thingsMicrobiology = study of small living thingsHow small is “small”?What do we really mean by living?Working definition: Study of entities too small to be seen with the unaided human eye.(< 0.2 mm = 200 µm = 200,000 nm)Chapter 1, pages 1 to 26
9Characteristics of Living Organisms The Main Themes of MicrobiologyMicrobiology: A Systems ApproachCharacteristics of Living OrganismsMetabolism – enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactionsBacillus cereus – Yes Bacteriophage T4 – NoReproduction – progeny formed sexually or asexually Bacillus cereus – Yes Bacteriophage T4 – YesDifferentiation – different cell types can occur Bacillus cereus – Yes Bacteriophage T4 – NoCommunication – signaling within and between cells Bacillus cereus – Yes Bacteriophage T4 – NoLocomotion – relative movement of cell or organism Bacillus cereus – Yes Bacteriophage T4 – NoEvolution – genetic change over time Bacillus cereus – Yes Bacteriophage T4 – YesChapter 1, pages 1 to 26
10Importance of Microbes The earliest organisms in the fossil recordEssential reactions in the environmentCan be harnessed to work for usInfectious diseases
11Branches of Microbiology Medical MicrobiologyPublic health Microbiology and EpidemiologyImmunology
12Branches of Microbiology Industrial MicrobiologyAgricultural MicrobiologyEnvironmental Microbiology
13BiotechnologyGenetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA Technology: genetically modified organisms (GMOs)Bioremediation
14Microbial DiseasesPathogens: microbes cause infectious diseases
15Microbiology Disciplines by Organism The Main Themes of MicrobiologyMicrobiology: A Systems ApproachMicrobiology Disciplines by OrganismMicrobiologists are sometimes referred to by the type of microbial system that they studyBacteriology: Study of prokaryotesMycology: Study of fungiPhycology: Study of algaeProtozoology: The study of protozoaVirology: The study of virusesChapter 1, pages 1 to 26
16Conclusions:Microbiology studies living organisms “too small to be seen by with the naked eye”. They include bacteria, algae, protozoa, fungi, helminths, and viruses.There are two types of cellular structure of microorganisms: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Viruses are not cellular and can be considered particles.Microorganisms have a crucial effect on the life on Earth.
17Conclusions:Humans manipulate microbes to do work for them in industry, medicine, and in caring for the environment.Microbiology is a complex discipline which includes many branches studying different aspects of microbesInfectious diseases are caused by microbes acting as parasites. There are differences in infectious diseases affecting developing and industrialized countries
18What Aspects of Microorganisms Will We Study? Cell Structure and FunctionCell Growth and MetabolismMicrobial GeneticsTaxonomy and Evolutionary HistoryInteraction with Living and Non-Living Environment