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Anatomy and Physiology The Endocrine System.  The endocrine system includes anything that secretes hormones directly into body fluids.  Endocrine glands.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology The Endocrine System.  The endocrine system includes anything that secretes hormones directly into body fluids.  Endocrine glands."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy and Physiology The Endocrine System

2  The endocrine system includes anything that secretes hormones directly into body fluids.  Endocrine glands include: the thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, kidney, hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, pancreas, ovaries, testes, and thymus glands.  The function of the endocrine systems is to regulate metabolic pathways (chemical rxns, electrolyte balance, membrane transport, reproduction, & digestion) by secreting hormones.

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4 Some terms:  Hormone : a biochemical that affects a specific metabolic pathway in another cell.  These are secreted into body fluids & blood.  These are mostly steroids and made from cholesterol but some are amines, peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins.  Target cells (or organs) : cells or organs that receive the hormone (cell that is affected). These cells have binding sites (a.k.a. receptors) for specific hormones.

5  Hormones are placed in 2 groups: Steroid hormones and Nonsteroid hormones.  Steroid Hormones : lipid soluble, meaning they easily pass (diffuse) thru membranes. These are formed from cholesterol usually.  Nonsteroid hormones must bind to receptors of target cells (do not diffuse thru membranes). These are amines, peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins.

6 Hormonal Secretion Control:  This is done by negative feedback control.  Mechanism that regulates the production of hormones based on the accumulation of another substance along a metabolic pathway. For example:  The adrenal gland produces chemical A which continues a pathway: A  B  C  D  E  When E is accumulated, it prevents (or inhibits) the adrenal gland from producing A. This is a negative feedback mechanism.

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8 The Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones

9 The Pituitary Gland:  found in the base of the brain  has 2 parts: anterior and posterior (based on the lobe of the brain in which it is found).  controlled by the hypothalamus (by releasing hormones) /ilt/T012393A.gif

10 The Pituitary Hormones: Anterior Pituitary Hormones:  Growth Hormone (GH) : stimulates growth of cells (increase in size & cell division).  Prolactin (PRL) : stimulates and sustains the milk production in new mothers.  Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) : controls thyroid gland secretions and is partially regulated by the hypothalamus.

11 Anterior Pituitary Hormones (cont’d):  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) : controls the hormone production of the adrenal cortex. Stress may increase ACTH.  Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) : are released in the gonads (testes and ovaries). These are called gonadotropins.

12 The Posterior Hormones:  Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) : decreases urine production by regulating the amount of water the kidneys excrete; therefore, regulating [water] in body fluids.  Oxytocin (OT) : considered an antidiuretic ; it stimulates the uterine muscles to contract (causing contractions & birth), lactation b/c it stimulates milk-producing glands, and milk ejection.

13 The Thyroid Gland and its hormones:  This is located on both sides of the larynx and in front of the trachea.  Thyroxine (a.k.a. T4 or tetraiodothyronine ) has 4 atoms of iodine and Triiodothyronine (a.k.a. T3 ) has 3 atoms of iodine ( is 5 times stronger ). Both regulate the metabolism of carbs (stimulate their use), proteins (stimulate their production), & lipids (stimulate their breakdown).  Calcitonin : not technically a thyroid hormone (b/c of the location of production). This regulates the [Ca] and [phosphate ions] in the blood.

14 Thyroid

15 The Parathyroid Glands and their hormones:  These 4 are found on the thyroid gland.  These secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) : increases blood [Ca ++ ] and decreases blood [phosphate ion], affecting the kidneys, bones & intestines. This works with calcitonin and is regulated by the [ ] of these ions in the blood. 607A1D47.jpg

16 The Adrenal Glands and their hormones:  This is located on top of the kidneys and contains 2 portions:  adrenal medulla ( central portion )  adrenal cortex ( outer portion ). adrenal_gland.jpg

17 The Adrenal Cortical Hormones:  Aldosterone : regulates the [mineral] in the blood, stimulating water retention and sustaining b.p. and volume.  Cortisol : a.ka. hydrocortisone, affects glucose, protein & fat metabolism.  Adrenal Sex Hormones : in males, a.k.a. adrenal androgens ; in females, a.k.a. estrogens. These supplement sex hormones & stimulate gonad development.

18 The Adrenal Medulla Hormones:  Epinephrine ( a.k.a. adrenaline ) and norepinephrine ( a.k.a. noradrenaline ) are released simultaneously. These increase the heart rate, increase heart contractions, increase breathing rate, increase b.p., increase blood glucose levels, & decrease digestion causing the typical “fight or flight reaction”

19 The Pancreas and its Hormones:  This is found by the stomach and has 2 functions: exocrine gland (secretes digestive juices) and endocrine (releasing hormones).  The endocrine section contains groups of cells known as the Islets of Langerhans which contain alpha cells ( secrete glucagon ) and beta cells ( secrete insulin ). 7-5C5C-4B26-A094- 64E9EA47D990%7D/image001.jpg

20 The Pancreatic Hormones:  Glucagon : produced by alpha cells ; stimulates the breakdown of glycogen and amino acids. It raises [blood sugar] and is regulated by a low blood sugar ( hypoglycemia ).  Insulin : produced by beta cells ; stimulates the liver to make glycogen, promotes the transport of glucose into cells, stimulates protein synthesis and stimulates fat storage ; thus, it decreases [blood sugar] and is regulated by a high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ).

21 gar.gif Blood Sugar Regulation:

22 Other Endocrine Glands

23 Pineal Glands:  This is found in the brain on the upper portion of the thalamus.  This secretes melatonin which regulates circadian rhythms ( response to light and dark conditions of the environment. These rhythms dictate sleep patterns & seasonal cycles of fertility in some mammals. pineal_glands.jpg

24 Thymus Gland:  This is found between the lungs (shrinks with age).  This secretes thymosins which regulate the production & differentiation of white blood cells, specifically T cells (T lymphocytes) t/images/Thymus_spleen.jpg

25 Reproductive Glands:  Ovaries : produce estrogens & progesterone  Testes : produce testosterone  Placenta : produces estrogens, progesterone & gonadotropin ages/heat.jpg ges/female.jpg y/images/ency/fullsize/17122.jpg

26  Heart: produces atrial natriuretic peptide ( stimulates urinary Na secretion ).  Kidneys: produce erythropoietin ( stimulates the production of rbc’s ). oaded_images/kidney-713543.jpg

27 Stress and Health:  Stress is defined as a condition that causes change in the internal environment (a physiological response that alters homeostasis).  A stressor is a factor that causes stress.

28 Stress and Health: There are types of stressors:  physical which can be temperature changes internally or externally, [O 2 ] changes, injury, illness (infections), exercise, noise, etc.  psychological factors which include emotions, feelings (anger, joy, fear, grief, anxiety, depression, etc.), thoughts, losses, unpleasant and pleasant encounters, and sexual arousals/encounters.

29 Response to stress: These are physiological responses, called general stress syndrome, which is an adaptation to general stress.  This is controlled by the hypothalamus which activates fight or flight rxns ( increases epinephrine output ). The physical responses include:  Increased [blood glucose] levels  increased heart rate  increased rate of breathing  increased blood pressure  air passage dilation

30  Other hormones are increased in output as well: glucagons, GH (both increase use of energy sources) and ADH (decrease urine output, conserving water, & maintaining blood volume).  In addition, cortisol is increased which decreases the # of lymphocytes (increasing risk of infection/illness by lowering resistance and increasing the risk of high blood pressure, GI ulcers and atherosclerosis).

31  Look up online or in text!  Know the following: dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, diabetes insipidus, goiters, Grave’s disease, cretinism, exophthalmos, tetany, Addison’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome, diabetes mellitus, ketosis, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, insulin resistance, and menopause.

32  THE END!

33  This slide show was developed by Dana Halloran,  Cardinal Mooney High School, Sarasota, FL.  Used with her personal permission,  adapted and amended by Rosa Whiting,  Manatee School for the Arts, Palmetto, FL.

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