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1 Semantic Web Service Systems 3 rd European Semantic Web Conference ESWC 2006 11-14 June, Budva, Montenegro Presenters:Liliana Cabral Mick Kerrigan Maciej.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Semantic Web Service Systems 3 rd European Semantic Web Conference ESWC 2006 11-14 June, Budva, Montenegro Presenters:Liliana Cabral Mick Kerrigan Maciej."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Semantic Web Service Systems 3 rd European Semantic Web Conference ESWC June, Budva, Montenegro Presenters:Liliana Cabral Mick Kerrigan Maciej Zaremba Contribution:Emilia Cimpian John Domingue Matthew Moran Brahmananda Sapkota Michal Zaremba

2 ESWC, Budva, Part I: Introduction to Semantic Web Services and WSMO (30 min) Part II: The Web Service Execution Environment, WSMX (45 min) –WSMX motivation, scope, approach –System Architecture Coffee Break (15 min) Part III: The Internet Reasoning Service, IRS III (45 min) –IRS Architecture –IRS Editing, Browsing, and Publication Environment Part IV: Hands-On Session with IRS III and WSMT (1 hour 15 min) –Create and publish WSMO descriptions –Use WSMX and IRS frameworks for goal-driven service invocation Agenda

3 ESWC, Budva, The Aims of this Tutorial Introduce the aims & challenges of Semantic Web Services (SWS) – focusing on the WSMO approach Describe WSMX and IRS-III, two complimentary execution environments for Semantic Web Services Demonstrate WSMX, IRS-III and WSMT, a design tool for WSMO ontologies and service descriptions

4 ESWC, Budva, Part I: Introduction to Semantic Web Services and WSMO Part II: The Web Service Execution Environment, WSMX –WSMX motivation, scope, approach –System Architecture Coffee Break Part III: The Internet Reasoning Service, IRS III –IRS Architecture –IRS Editing, Browsing, and Publication Environment Part IV: Hands-On Session with IRS III and WSMT –Create and publish WSMO descriptions –Use WSMX and IRS frameworks for goal-driven service invocation Agenda

5 ESWC, Budva, Introduction to Semantic Web Services Introduction to Semantic Web Introduction to Web services  Semantic Web Services

6 ESWC, Budva, million user more than 3 billion pages Static WWW URI, HTML, HTTP Semantic Web and Web Services – The Vision

7 ESWC, Budva, Static WWW URI, HTML, HTTP Serious Problems in information finding, information extracting, Information representing, information interpreting and information maintaining. Semantic Web RDF, RDF(S), OWL Semantic Web and Web Services

8 ESWC, Budva, Static WWW URI, HTML, HTTP Bringing the computer back as a device for computation Semantic Web RDF, RDF(S), OWL Dynamic Web Services UDDI, WSDL, SOAP Semantic Web and Web Services – The Vision

9 ESWC, Budva, Static WWW URI, HTML, HTTP Bringing the Web to its full potential Semantic Web RDF, RDF(S), OWL Dynamic Web Services UDDI, WSDL, SOAP Intelligent Web Services Semantic Web and Web Services – The Vision

10 ESWC, Budva, Formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization commonly accepted understanding conceptual model of a domain (ontological theory) unambiguous terminology definitions machine-readability with computational semantics Ontology Definition

11 ESWC, Budva, Ontology Example Concept conceptual entity of the domain Attribute property of a concept Relation relationship between concepts or properties Axiom coherent description between Concepts / Properties / Relations via logical expressions Person Student Professor Lecture isA – hierarchy (taxonomy) name student nr. research field topic lecture nr. attends holds holds(Professor, Lecture)  Lecture.topic  Professor.researchField

12 ESWC, Budva, What are Web Services Loosely coupled, reusable components Described using XML –WSDL and XML Schema Encapsulate discrete functionality Distributed Programmatically accessible over internet protocols –HTTP, SOAP

13 ESWC, Budva, Using Web Services

14 ESWC, Budva, Using Web Services

15 ESWC, Budva, Problems unresolved by Web Services (Semi)-automatic service discovery Data interoperability Process interoperability (Semi)-automatic service composition

16 ESWC, Budva, Semantic Web Services Define formal description frameworks for describing Web Services and related aspects –Ontologies such as WSMO and OWL-S (and WSDL-S) Support ontologies as underlying data model to allow machine supported data interpretation –Ontology language such as WSML and OWL Define semantically driven technologies for automation of the Web Service usage process –Tools and environments such as WSMX, IRS-III, WSMT

17 ESWC, Budva, Semantic Web Services (2) Usage Process: Publication: –Make available the description of the capabilities of a service Discovery: –Locate different services suitable for a given task Selection: –Choose the most appropriate services among the available ones Composition: –Combine services (or goals) to achieve a goal Mediation: –Solve mismatches (in data or process) among the combined services Execution: –Invoke services following programmatic conventions

18 ESWC, Budva, Semantic Web Services = Semantic Web Technology + Web Service Technology Summary

19 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) A conceptual model for Semantic Web Services: –Ontology of core elements for Semantic Web Services –a formal description language (WSML) –execution environment (WSMX) … derived from and based on the Web Service Modeling Framework WSMF an European Semantic System Initiative –“ESSI Cluster” Working Group –joint European research and development initiative

20 ESWC, Budva, A Conceptual Model for SWS A Formal Language for WSMO A Rule-based Language for SWS Execution Environment for WSMO WSMO Working Groups

21 ESWC, Budva, WSMO Design Principles Web ComplianceOntology-Based Strict Decoupling Of Modeling Elements Centrality of Mediation Ontological Role Separation Description versus Implementation Execution Semantics WSMO

22 ESWC, Budva, Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web Services Provide the formally specified terminology of the information used by all other components Semantic description of Web Services: - Capability (functional) - Interfaces (usage) Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogeneities WSMO Top Level Notions

23 ESWC, Budva, Non-Functional Properties Every WSMO element can be described by properties that contain relevant, non-functional aspects. Sample information sets are: –Dublin Core Metadata Set: For resource management –Versioning Information For evolution support –Quality of Service Information For availability, stability –Other WSMO non functional properties are extensible

24 ESWC, Budva, Dublin Core Metadata Contributor Coverage Creator Description Format Identifier Language Publisher Relation Rights Source Subject Title Type Quality of Service Accuracy NetworkRelatedQoS Performance Reliability Robustness Scalability Security Transactional Trust Non-Functional Properties List

25 ESWC, Budva, WSMO Ontologies Provide the formally specified terminology of the information used by all other components Semantic description of Web Services: - Capability (functional) - Interfaces (usage) Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogeneities Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web Services

26 ESWC, Budva, Ontology Description and Usage Ontologies are used as the ‘data model’ throughout WSMO –WSMO is defined in terms of itself –All data-types used in Web Service interfaces are ontology concepts –Discovery, mediation and composition are based on ontology reasoning WSMO Ontology Language WSML –Conceptual syntax for describing WSMO elements –Logical language for axiomatic expressions (WSML Layering) WSMO Ontology Design –Modularization: import / re-using ontologies, modular approach for ontology design –De-Coupling: heterogeneity handled by OO Mediators

27 ESWC, Budva, Ontology Specification Non functional properties (see before) Imported Ontologies importing existing ontologies where no heterogeneities arise Used mediators OO Mediators (ontology import with terminology mismatch handling) Ontology Elements: Concepts set of concepts that belong to the ontology, incl. Attributes set of attributes that belong to a concept Relations define interrelations between several concepts Functions special type of relation (unary range = return value) Instances set of instances that belong to the represented ontology Axioms axiomatic expressions in ontology (logical statement)

28 ESWC, Budva, WSMO Web services Provide the formally specified terminology of the information used by all other components Semantic description of Web Services: - Capability (functional) - Interfaces (usage) Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogeneities Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web Services

29 ESWC, Budva, Web service Implementation (not of interest in Web Service Description) Choreography --- Service Interfaces --- Capability functional description WS - Advertising of Web Service - Support for WS Discovery client-service interaction interface for consuming WS - External Visible Behavior - Communication Structure - ‘Grounding’ realization of functionality by aggregating other Web Services - functional decomposition - WS composition Non-functional Properties DC + QoS + Version + financial - complete item description - quality aspects - Web Service Management WS Orchestration WSMO Web service description

30 ESWC, Budva, Capability Specification Non functional properties Imported Ontologies Used mediators –OO Mediator: importing ontologies with mismatch resolution –WG Mediator: link to a Goal wherefore service is not usable a priori Pre-conditions –What a web service expects in order to be able to provide its service –Define conditions over the input. Assumptions –Conditions on the state of the world that has to hold before the Web Service can be executed Post-conditions –Describes the result of the WS in relation to the input, and conditions on it Effects –Conditions on the state of the world that hold after execution of the –Web Service (i.e. changes in the state of the world)

31 ESWC, Budva, VTA Service Date Time Flight, Hotel Error Confirmation Hotel Service Flight Service Date, Time Hotel Error Date, Time Flight Error When the service is requested When the service requests Choreography & Orchestration VTA example: Choreography = how to interact with the service to consume its functionality Orchestration = how service functionality is achieved by aggregating other Web services Confirmation

32 ESWC, Budva, Choreography Aspects Interface for consuming Web Service –External Visible Behavior those aspects of the workflow of a Web Service where Interaction is required described by workflow constructs: sequence, split, loop, parallel –Communication Structure messages sent and received their order (communicative behavior for service consumption) choreography related errors (e.g. input wrong, message timeout, etc.) –Grounding concrete communication technology for interaction –Formal Model reasoning on Web Service interfaces (service interoperability) allow mediation support on Web Service interfaces

33 ESWC, Budva, decomposition of service functionality -all service interaction via choreographies Control Structure for aggregation of other Web Services WS Web Service Business Logic WS State in Orchestration Control Flow Data Flow Service Interaction Orchestration Aspects

34 ESWC, Budva, Orchestration Aspects Service interfaces are concerned with service consumption and interaction Choreography and Orchestration as sub-concepts of Service Interface Common requirements for service interface description: –represent the dynamics of information interchange during service consumption and interaction –support ontologies as the underlying data model –appropriate communication technology for information interchange –sound formal model / semantics of service interface specifications in order to allow operations on them.

35 ESWC, Budva, WSMO Goals Provide the formally specified terminology of the information used by all other components Semantic description of Web Services: - Capability (functional) - Interfaces (usage) Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogeneities Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web Services

36 ESWC, Budva, Goals Ontological De-coupling of Requester and Provider Goal-driven Approach –derived from AI rational agent approach –Requester formulates objective independently –‘Intelligent’ mechanisms detect suitable services for solving the Goal –allows re-use of Services for different purposes Usage of Goals within Semantic Web Services –A Requester, that is an agent (human or machine), defines a Goal to be resolved –Web Service Discovery detects suitable Web Services for solving the Goal automatically –Goal Resolution Management is realized in implementations

37 ESWC, Budva, Goal Specification Non functional properties Imported Ontologies Used mediators –OO Mediators: importing ontologies with heterogeneity resolution –GG Mediator: Goal definition by reusing an already existing goal allows definition of Goal Ontologies Requested Capability –describes service functionality expected to resolve the objective –defined as capability description from the requester perspective Requested Interface –describes communication behaviour supported by the requester for consuming a Web Service (Choreography) –Restrictions / preferences on orchestrations of acceptable Web Services

38 ESWC, Budva, WSMO Mediators Provide the formally specified terminology of the information used by all other components Semantic description of Web Services: - Capability (functional) - Interfaces (usage) Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogeneities Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web Services

39 ESWC, Budva, Mediation Heterogeneity … –Mismatches on structural / semantic / conceptual / functional / level –Occur between different components that shall interoperate –Especially in distributed & open environments like the Internet Concept of Mediation (Wiederhold, 94): –Mediators as components that resolve mismatches –Declarative Approach: Semantic description of resources ‘Intelligent’ mechanisms that resolve mismatches independent of content –Mediation cannot be fully automated (integration decision) Levels of Mediation within Semantic Web Services (WSMF): (1)Data Level: mediate heterogeneous Data Sources (2)Functional Level: mediate mismatches between Web Service/Goal and Web Service/Goals functionalities (3)Process/Protocol Level: mediate heterogeneous Business Processes/Communication Patterns Layers of Mediators –Specification Layer – WSMO Mediators –Implementation Layer – Levels of Mediation

40 ESWC, Budva, WSMO Mediators Overview

41 ESWC, Budva, WSMO Mediator uses a Mediation Service via Source Component Source Component Target Component 1.. n 1 Mediation Services - as a Goal - directly - optionally incl. Mediation Mediator Structure Specification layer Implementation layer

42 ESWC, Budva, OO Mediator Mediation Service Train Connection Ontology (s1) Purchase Ontology (s2) Train Ticket Purchase Ontology Mediation Services Discovery Merging 2 ontologies OO Mediator - Example Goal: “merge s1, s2 and s1.ticket subclassof s2.product”

43 ESWC, Budva, GG Mediator Mediation Service Source Goal “Buy a ticket” Target Goal “Buy a Train Ticket” postcondition: “aTicket memberof trainticket” GG Mediators Aim: –Support specification of Goals by re-using existing Goals –Allow definition of Goal Ontologies (collection of pre-defined Goals) –Terminology mismatches handled by OO Mediators Example: Goal Refinement

44 ESWC, Budva, WG Mediators: –link a Web Service to a Goal and resolve occurring mismatches –match Web Service and Goals that do not match a priori –handle terminology mismatches between Web Services and Goals  broader range of Goals solvable by a Web Service WW Mediators: –enable interoperability of heterogeneous Web Services  support automated collaboration between Web Services –OO Mediators for terminology import with data level mediation –Protocol Mediation for establishing valid multi-party collaborations –Process Mediation for making Business Processes interoperable WG & WW Mediators

45 ESWC, Budva, Data Level Mediation Scope –Solving terminological mismatches Related Aspects / Techniques: –Ontology Integration (Mapping, Merging, Alignment) –Data Lifting & Lowering –Transformation between Languages / Formalisms Terminology Mismatches Classification –Conceptualization Mismatches same domain concepts, but different conceptualization different levels of abstraction different ontological structure => resolution only includs human intervention –Explication Mismatches mismatches between: –T (Term used), D (definition of concepts), C (real world concept) => automated resolution partially possible

46 ESWC, Budva, Functional Level Mediation Scope –Solving functional mismatches between goals and/or ws Related Aspects/Techniques –Discovery –Semantic Matchmaking Matchmaking Mismatches = G/WS X Exact MatchSubsumption MatchIntersection MatchNo MatchPlugIn Match

47 ESWC, Budva, Process Level Mediation Scope –Resolves communication mismatches and establish behavior compatibility Related Aspects/Techniques –Data and control flow composition Process Mismatches –Signature terminology mismatches (need for data level mediation) –Communication/behavior mismatches

48 ESWC, Budva, WSMO Mediators and Mediation Levels ooMediator –Data Level Mediation ggMediator –Data Level Mediation –Functional Level Mediation Example: wgMediator –Data Level Mediation –Functional Level Mediation –Process Level Mediation wwMediator –Data Level Mediation –Functional Level Mediation –Process Level Mediation internal business logic of Web Service (not of interest in Service Interface Description) internal business logic of Web Service (not of interest in Service Interface Description) WW Mediator

49 ESWC, Budva, Part I: Introduction to Semantic Web Services and WSMO Part II: The Web Service Execution Environment, WSMX –WSMX motivation, scope, approach –System Architecture Coffee Break Part III: The Internet Reasoning Service, IRS III –IRS Architecture –IRS Editing, Browsing, and Publication Environment Part IV: Hands-On Session with IRS III and WSMT –Create and publish WSMO descriptions –Use WSMX and IRS frameworks for goal-driven service invocation Agenda

50 ESWC, Budva, WSMX Introduction Software framework for runtime binding of service requesters and service providers WSMX interprets service requester’s goal to – discover matching services – select (if desired) the service that best fits – provide mediation (if required) – make the service invocation Is based on the conceptual model provided by WSMO Has a formal execution semantics Service Oriented and event-based architecture –based on microkernel design using technologies as J2EE, Hibernate, Spring, JMX, etc.

51 ESWC, Budva, WSMX Motivation Provide a reference implementation for WSMO –Eat our own cake Build on existing Web service technology –Use existing standards where possible Enable goal based service discovery and invocation –Run-time binding of service requester and provider Extend SOA to cater for semantic technology –Everything is defined in an ontology Keep open-source to encourage participation –Developers are free to use in their own code Define formal execution semantics –Unambiguous model of system behaviour

52 ESWC, Budva, WSMX Usage Scenario

53 ESWC, Budva, WSMX Usage Scenario - P2P A P2P network of WSMX ‘nodes’ Each WSMX node described as a SWS Communication via WSML over SOAP Distributed discovery – first aim Longer term aim - distributed execution environment

54 ESWC, Budva, WSMX Usage Scenario - P2P

55 ESWC, Budva, WSMX Usage Scenario - P2P

56 ESWC, Budva, User Service versus Platform Service in SWS Systems

57 ESWC, Budva, Vertical and Horizontal Services Vertical services remain invisible to horizontal services, and during its execution, the horizontal services remain unaware that vertical services are executed together with them Vertical services invoke horizontal services, coordinating overall workflow, rather than horizontal service invoking the vertical

58 ESWC, Budva, Design Principles Strong Decoupling & Strong Mediation –autonomous components with mediators for interoperability Interface vs. Implementation –distinguish interface (= description) from implementation (=program) Peer to Peer –interaction between equal partners (in terms of control) WSMO Design Principles == WSMX Design Principles == SOA Design Principles

59 ESWC, Budva, Benefits of SOA Better reuse –Build new functionality (new execution semantics) on top of existing Business Services Well defined interfaces –Manage changes without affecting the Core System Easier Maintainability –Changes/Versions are not all-or-nothing Better Flexibility

60 ESWC, Budva, Selected Components Adapters Parser Invoker Choreography Process Mediator Discovery Data Mediator Resource Manager Reasoning

61 ESWC, Budva, Adapters To overcome data representation mismatches on the communication layer Transforms the format of a received message into WSML compliant format Based on mapping rules

62 ESWC, Budva, Parser WSML compliant parser –Code handed over to wsmo4j initiative Validates WSML description files Compiles WSML description into internal memory model Stores WSML description persistently

63 ESWC, Budva, Communication Manager – Invoker WSMX uses –The Apache Jetty in-code Web server –The Apache SOAP with Attachments library (SAAJ) WSMO service descriptions are grounded to WSDL Both RPC and Document style invocations possible Input parameters for the Web Services are translated from WSML to XML using an additional XML Converter component. Network Invoker Apache AXIS XML Converter Mediated WSML Data XML Web Service SOAP

64 ESWC, Budva, Choreography The Choreography engine handles the exchange of messages based on WSML descriptions WSMX  Requester (Goal description) WSMX  Provider (Web Service description) Works closely with the communication manager

65 ESWC, Budva, Process Mediator Handles differences between Goal and Web service choreographies (if possible) Design-time aspect – determine equivalences between the choreographies and store rules Run-time aspect – analyse the two choreography instances and to use the rules to mediate any mismatches

66 ESWC, Budva, Discovery Responsible for finding appropriate Web Services to achieve a goal (discovery) Naive discovery component based on keyword matching –Keywords identified in the NFP of the goal –Matched against NFPs of the published WSs –Variable set of NFPs to be considered for this process –To be extended Values in NFPs might be concepts from ontologies More elaborate string matching algorithms Advanced semantic discovery in prototypical stage

67 ESWC, Budva, Data Mediator Ontology-to-ontology mediation A set of mapping rules are defined and then executed Initially rules are defined semi-automatic Create for each source instance the target instance(s)

68 ESWC, Budva, Resource Manager Stores internal memory model to a data store Decouples storage mechanism from the rest of WSMX Data model is compliant to WSMO API Independent of any specific data store implementation i.e. database and storage mechanism

69 ESWC, Budva, Reasoner Mins –Datalog + Negation + Function Symbols Reasoner Engine –Features Built-in predicates Function symbols Stratified negation WSMO4J –validation, serialization and parsing WSML2Reasoner –Reasoning API mapping fromWSML to a vendor-neutral rule representation –Contains: Common API for WSML Reasoners Transformations of WSML to tool-specific input data (query answering or instance retrieval) WSML-DL-Reasoner –Features: T-Box reasoning (provided by FaCT++) Querying for all concepts Querying for the equivalents, for the children, for the descendants, for the parents and for all ancestors of a given concept Testing the satisfiability of a given concept with respect to the knowledge base Subsumption test of two concepts with respect to the knowledge base Wrapper of WSML-DL to the XML syntax of DL used in the DIG interface

70 ESWC, Budva, System Entry Points achieveGoal (WSMLDocument) getWebServices (WSMLDocument)  invokeWebService(WSMLDocument, Context)

71 ESWC, Budva, Define “Business” Process

72 ESWC, Budva, Generate Wrappers for Components Discovery Wrapper Choreography Wrapper Communication Manager Wrapper Registry of known components

73 ESWC, Budva, Context Data PROCESS CONTEXT Discovery Wrapper Data Mediator Choreography Wrapper Communication Manager Wrapper Registry of known components Choreography object Mediated objects, Web Services entities Errors Exceptions

74 ESWC, Budva, Event-based Implementation

75 ESWC, Budva, WSMX Conclusions Conceptual model is WSMO End to end functionality for executing SWS Has a formal execution semantics Real implementation Open source code base at SourceForge Event-driven component architecture

76 ESWC, Budva, Time for a break …

77 ESWC, Budva, Part I: Introduction to Semantic Web Services and WSMO Part II: The Web Service Execution Environment, WSMX –WSMX motivation, scope, approach –System Architecture Coffee Break Part III: The Internet Reasoning Service, IRS III –IRS Architecture –IRS Editing, Browsing, and Publication Environment Part IV: Hands-On Session with IRS III and WSMT –Create and publish WSMO descriptions –Use WSMX and IRS frameworks for goal-driven service invocation Agenda

78 ESWC, Budva, Design Principles Ontological separation of User and Web Service Contexts Capability Based Invocation Ease of Use One Click Publishing Agnostic to Service Implementation Platform Connected to External Environment Open Complete Descriptions Inspectable Interoperable with SWS Frameworks and Platforms

79 ESWC, Budva, Features of IRS-III (1/2) Based on Soap messaging standard Provides Java API for client applications Provides built-in brokering and service discovery support Provides capability-centred service invocation

80 ESWC, Budva, Features of IRS-III (2/2) Publishing support for variety of platforms –Java, Lisp, Web Applications, Java Web Services Enables publication of ‘standard code’ –Provides clever wrappers –One-click publishing of web services Integrated with standard Web Services world –Semantic web service to IRS –‘Ordinary’ web service

81 ESWC, Budva, IRS-3 Server Domain Models Web Service Specifications + Registry of Implementors Goal Specifications + SOAP Binding IRS Publisher S O A P IRS Client SOAP IRS Publisher Lisp Java Java WS IRS-III Framework

82 ESWC, Budva, LispWeb Server IRS-III Architecture IRS-III Server WS Publisher Registry OCML WSMO Library Browser Invocation Client Publishing Clients SOAP Handler SOAPSOAP Publishing Platforms Web Service Java Code Web Application SOAP Browser Handler Publisher Handler Invocation Handler JavaAPIJavaAPI WSMX WSMO Studio

83 ESWC, Budva, European Travel Scenario

84 ESWC, Budva, European Travel Demo

85 ESWC, Budva, IRS-III/WSMO differences Underlying language OCML Goals have inputs and outputs IRS-III broker finds applicable Web Services via Mediators –Used mediator within WS capability –Mediator source = Goal Web Services have inputs and outputs ‘inherited’ from goal descriptions Web Service selected via assumption (in capability)

86 ESWC, Budva, WSMO Studio Integrated Service Environment for WSMO Provide easy to use GUI for various WSMO tasks –Working with ontologies –Creating WSMO descriptions: goals, services, mediators –Creating WSMO centric orchestration and choreography specifications –Import (export) from (to) various formats –Front-end for ontology and service repositotories –Front-end for runtime SWS environments (WSMX, IRS-III)

87 ESWC, Budva, Requirements for an ISE Modular design –Different users need to customise the functionality in a specific way –Easier to maintain (e.g. ship new versions and bugfixes) –More suitable for 3rd party contributions Extensibility –SWS is an emerging domain –It is difficult to specify requirements and functionality upfront Architecture based on open standards –Lowers the cost of adopting / integrating a tool –3rd party extensions and improvements are more likely to occur Flexible licensing –An Open Source licence improves the adoption rate

88 ESWC, Budva, WSMO Studio Modular design –Eclipse based plug-in architecture – Java based implementation Extensible –3rd parties may contribute new functionality (plug-ins) or modify existing functionality Open Source core –LGPL –3rd party contributors are free to choose their respective licensing terms

89 ESWC, Budva, Editing a Goal in WSMO Studio

90 ESWC, Budva, WSMO Studio view onto IRS-III

91 ESWC, Budva, Part I: Introduction to Semantic Web Services and WSMO Part II: The Web Service Execution Environment, WSMX –WSMX motivation, scope, approach –System Architecture Coffee Break Part III: The Internet Reasoning Service (IRS III) and WSMO Studio (45 mins) –IRS Architecture –IRS Editing, Browsing, and Publication via WSMO Studio Part IV: Hands-On Session with IRS III and WSMO Studio (1 hour 15 min) –Create and publish WSMO descriptions –Use IRS frameworks for goal-driven service invocation Agenda

92 ESWC, Budva, European Travel Scenario

93 ESWC, Budva, European Travel Demo

94 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description Goals describe requirements from client perspective… Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules

95 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description Their Capabilities describe the functional requirements… Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules

96 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description Preconditions express guarantees client can make, purely over information they can communicate, in order that functional requirements are met… Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules

97 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description Assumptions express general guarantees client can make, involving communications and environment, in order that functional requirements are met… Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules

98 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description Postconditions express guarantees client would like over information communicated back in order that functional requirements are met… Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules

99 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description Effects express the general guarantees the client would like after the goal has been achieved Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules

100 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description Capabilities can be used for one or more of: representing a client-oriented perspective, advertising and service discovery. We do not use goal capabilities in the hands on session. Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules

101 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description The interfaces of goals describe the behavioural requirements of clients, i.e. constraints over communication Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules

102 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description The choreography expresses communications the client is able to engage in… Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules

103 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules The state signature describes these communications semantically, by linking modes to ontological concepts

104 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description The state signature describes these communications semantically, by linking modes to ontological concepts: –IN modes describe communications the client would like to receive Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules

105 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description The state signature describes these communications semantically, by linking modes to ontological concepts: –IN modes describe communications the client would like to receive; –OUT modes describe communications the client is able to send. Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules

106 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules Transition rules link communications into a stateful interaction

107 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules Transition rules link communications into a stateful interaction: –Transition rules can be used to constrain the stateful behaviour of matching services, or define the process mediation ‘a priori’. We do not use transition rules in the hands on session.

108 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules Orchestrations govern over the composite behaviour that is required to go into meeting the goal – the technology to exploit this is not yet available

109 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description in Tutorial Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules The steps that go into describing a goal in the tutorial are:

110 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description in Tutorial Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules The steps that go into describing a goal in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (request and response)

111 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description in Tutorial Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules The steps that go into describing a goal in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (request and response); –Creation of a goal

112 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description in Tutorial Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules The steps that go into describing a goal in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (request and response); –Creation of a goal; –Attachment of a choreography

113 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description in Tutorial Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules The steps that go into describing a goal in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (request and response); –Creation of a goal; –Attachment of a choreography; Attachment of a state signature

114 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description in Tutorial Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules The steps that go into describing a goal in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (request and response); –Creation of a goal; –Attachment of a choreography; Attachment of a state signature; –Attachment of communications to state signature

115 ESWC, Budva, Goal Description in Tutorial Goal Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules State Signature Transition Rules The steps that go into describing a goal in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (request and response); –Creation of a goal; –Attachment of a choreography; Attachment of a state signature –Attachment of communications to state signature: request as OUT mode; response as IN

116 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description WSMO Web Services describe abilities of deployed services… Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

117 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description Their Capabilities describe their functional abilities… Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

118 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description Preconditions express guarantees they expect from clients, purely over information they communicate… Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

119 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description Assumptions express general guarantees they expect of clients, involving communications and environment… Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

120 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description Postconditions express guarantees they make over information communicated back, providing the preconditions and assumptions are met by the client… Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

121 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description Effects express the general guarantees made, over communicated and changes to the environment, providing the preconditions and assumptions are met by the client Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

122 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description The last part of the hands on session uses the assumption for web service selection. Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

123 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description The interfaces of web services describe their behavioural characteristics, i.e. the communications they engage in Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

124 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description The choreography expresses communications the service engages in with its clients… Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

125 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description The state signature describes these communications semantically, by linking modes to ontological concepts Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

126 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description The state signature describes these communications semantically, by linking modes to ontological concepts: –IN modes describe communications the service is able to receive Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

127 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description The state signature describes these communications semantically, by linking modes to ontological concepts: –IN modes describe communications the client would like to receive; –OUT modes describe communications the service is able to send Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

128 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description The state signature describes these communications semantically, by linking modes to ontological concepts: –IN modes describe communications the client would like to receive; –OUT modes describe communications the service is able to send; –modes may be grounded to physical communications for service execution (SOAP endpoints, REST identifiers, LISP and Java functions). Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

129 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description Transition rules link communications into a stateful interaction Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

130 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description Transition rules link communications into a stateful interaction: –Transition rules may be used in matching and (process) mediation against goals, Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

131 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description Transition rules link communications into a stateful interaction: –Transition rules may be used in matching and (process) mediation against goals, or for –In process mediation between IRS-III/WSMX broker and the deployed service Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

132 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description Orchestrations describe how composite services achieve their behaviour in terms of communications between its components, which may be goals or services. We do not cover this in the hands on session. Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

133 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description WG-Mediators describe which goals are met by a web service Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

134 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description WG-Mediators describe which goals are met by a web service; the descriptions may have some mismatch to be mediated Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

135 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description WG-Mediators describe which goals are met by a web service; the descriptions may have some mismatch to be mediated: –a mediation goal describes data mediation which needs to take place between client communications and those of the service Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

136 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description WG-Mediators describe which goals are met by a web service; the descriptions may have some mismatch to be mediated: –a mediation goal describes data mediation which needs to take place between client communications and those of the service; –an oo-mediator can map between descriptions in two different ontologies – we do not cover this in the hands on session Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

137 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description in Tutorial The steps that go into describing a service in the tutorial are: Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

138 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description in Tutorial The steps that go into describing a service in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (may be reused from goal) Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

139 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description in Tutorial The steps that go into describing a service in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (may be reused from goal); –Creation of a service Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

140 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description in Tutorial The steps that go into describing a service in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (may be reused from goal); –Creation of a service; possibly attachment of an assumption Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

141 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description in Tutorial The steps that go into describing a service in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (may be reused from goal); –Creation of a service; possibly attachment of an assumption –Creation of a wg-mediator (possibly involving a mediation goal) Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

142 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description in Tutorial The steps that go into describing a service in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (may be reused from goal); –Creation of a service; possibly attachment of an assumption –Creation of a wg-mediator (possibly involving a mediation goal); –Attachment of a choreography Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

143 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description in Tutorial The steps that go into describing a service in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (may be reused from goal); –Creation of a service; possibly attachment of an assumption –Creation of a wg-mediator (possibly involving a mediation goal); –Attachment of a choreography; Attachment of a state signature Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

144 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description in Tutorial The steps that go into describing a service in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (may be reused from goal); –Creation of a service; possibly attachment of an assumption –Creation of a wg-mediator (possibly involving a mediation goal); –Attachment of a choreography; Attachment of a state signature; –Attachment of communications to state signature Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

145 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description in Tutorial The steps that go into describing a service in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (may be reused from goal); –Creation of a service; possibly attachment of an assumption –Creation of a wg-mediator (possibly involving a mediation goal); –Attachment of a choreography; Attachment of a state signature –Attachment of communications to state signature: request as IN mode Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

146 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description in Tutorial The steps that go into describing a service in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (may be reused from goal); –Creation of a service; possibly attachment of an assumption –Creation of a wg-mediator (possibly involving a mediation goal); –Attachment of a choreography; Attachment of a state signature –Attachment of communications to state signature: request as IN mode, grounded to LISP function Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

147 ESWC, Budva, Web Service Description in Tutorial The steps that go into describing a service in the tutorial are: –Ontological description of the communications (may be reused from goal); –Creation of a service; possibly attachment of an assumption –Creation of a wg-mediator (possibly involving a mediation goal); –Attachment of a choreography; Attachment of a state signature –Attachment of communications to state signature: request as IN mode, grounded to LISP function; response as OUT Capability Interface Precondition Assumption Postcondition Effect Choreography Orchestration State Signature Transition Rules Web Service WG-Mediator Mediation Goal OO-Mediator

148 ESWC, Budva, IRS-III Hands On Task Develop an application for the European Travel scenario based on SWS. The application should support a person booking a train ticket between 2 European cities at a specific time and date The following WSMO Studio tasks are involved: –Retrieve domain ontology from IRS; –Create WSML ontology concepts to describe communications; –Create WSMO descriptions for Goals, WG-mediators and Web service descriptions; –Export these definitions to the IRS; –Create WSML ontology instances of the requests; –Achieve the goals against these instances.

149 ESWC, Budva, Tutorial Setup Travel Services (3001) IRS Lisp Publisher IRS Server (3000) Domain Models WSMO Studio

150 ESWC, Budva, Travel Related Knowledge Models

151 ESWC, Budva, Key Classes, Relations, Instances is-in-country e.g. (is-in-country berlin germany) -> true (student ) -> true, for john matt michal (business-person ) -> true, for liliana michael

152 ESWC, Budva, Goals 1- Get train timetable –Inputs: origin and destination cities (city), date (date-and- time, e.g. ( )) –Output: timetable (string) 2- Book train –Inputs: passenger name (person), origin and destination cities, departure time-date (list-date-and-time, e.g. ( )) –Output: booking information (string)

153 ESWC, Budva, Services 1 service available for goal 1 –No constraints 6 services available for goal 2 –As a provider write the constraints applicable to the services to satisfy the goal (assumption logical expressions) 1 wg-mediator mediation-service –Used to convert time in list format to time in universal format

154 ESWC, Budva, Service constraints Services 2-5 –Services for (origin and destination) cities in determined countries Service 4-5 –Need a mediation service to map goal time-date to service time-date Services 6-7 –Services for students or business people in Europe

155 ESWC, Budva, Available Functions (1/3) 1- get-train-times paris london ( ) "Timetable of trains from PARIS to LONDON on 18, 4, :18 …23:36" 2- book-english-train-journey christoph milton-keynes london ( ) "British Rail: CHRISTOPH is booked on the 66 going from MILTON-KEYNES to LONDON at 16:49, 15, SEPTEMBER The price is 169 Euros." 3- book-french-train-journey sinuhe paris lyon ( ) "SNCF: SINUHE is booked on the 511 going from PARIS to LYON at 6:12, 18, AUGUST The price is 27 Euros."

156 ESWC, Budva, Available Functions (2/3) 4- book-german-train-journey christoph berlin frankfurt "First Class Booking German Rail (Die Bahn): CHRISTOPH is booked on the 323 going from BERLIN to FRANKFURT at 17:11, 15, SEPTEMBER The price is 35 Euros." 5- book-austrian-train-journey sinuhe vienna innsbruck "Austrian Rail (OBB): SINUHE is booked on the 367 going from VIENNA to INNSBRUCK at 16:47, 15, SEPTEMBER The price is 36 Euros. "

157 ESWC, Budva, Available Functions (3/3) 6- book-student-european-train-journey john london nice ( ) "European Student Rail Travel: JOHN is booked on the 916 going from LONDON to NICE at 6:44, 18, AUGUST The price is 94 Euros. " 7- book-business-european-train-journey liliana paris innsbruck ( ) "Business Europe: LILIANA is booked on the 461 going from PARIS to INNSBRUCK at 6:12, 18, AUGUST The price is 325 Euros." 8- mediate-time (lisp function) or JavaMediateTime/mediate (java) ( )

158 ESWC, Budva, References The central location where WSMO work and papers can be found is WSMO Working Group: WSMO languages – WSML Working Group: WSMO implementation –WSMX working group : –WSMX open source can be found at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/wsmx/https://sourceforge.net/projects/wsmx/

159 ESWC, Budva, Wrap-up, References & Acknowledgements

160 ESWC, Budva, Tutorial Wrap-up The targets of the presented tutorial were to: –Understand aims & challenges within Semantic Web Services –Understand WSMO approach to Semantic Web Services –Present WSMX and IRS - future Web Service based IT middlewares design and architecture components design => You should now be able to assess WSMO technologies and utilize these for your future work

161 ESWC, Budva, References The central location where WSMO work and papers can be found is WSMO Working Group: WSMO languages – WSML Working Group: WSMO implementation –WSMX working group : –WSMX open source can be found at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/wsmx/https://sourceforge.net/projects/wsmx/

162 ESWC, Budva, References [WSMO Specification]: Roman, D.; Lausen, H.; Keller, U. (eds.): Web Service Modeling Ontology, WSMO Working Draft D2, final version 1.2, 13 April [WSMO Primer]: Feier, C. (ed.): WSMO Primer, WSMO Working Draft D3.1, 18 February [WSMO Choreography and Orchestration] Roman, D.; Scicluna, J., Feier, C. (eds.): Ontology-based Choreography and Orchestration of WSMO Services, WSMO Working Draft D14, 01 March [WSMO Use Case] Stollberg, M.; Lausen, H.; Polleres, A.; Lara, R. (ed.): WSMO Use Case Modeling and Testing, WSMO Working Drafts D3.2; D3.3.; D3.4; D3.5, 05 November [WSML] de Bruijn, J. (Ed.): The WSML Specification, WSML Working Draft D16, 03 February [Arroyo et al. 2004] Arroyo, S., Lara, R., Gomez, J. M., Berka, D., Ding, Y. and Fensel, D: "Semantic Aspects of Web Services" in Practical Handbook of Internet Computing. Munindar P. Singh, editor. Chapman Hall and CRC Press, Baton Rouge [Berners-Lee et al. 2001] Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler, and Ora Lassila, “The Semantic Web”. Scientific American, 284(5):34-43, 2001.

163 ESWC, Budva, References [Bussler, 2003] Bussler, C. (2003): B2B Integration. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. [Cimpian and Mocan, 2005] Emilia Cimpian, Adrian Mocan: WSMX Process Mediation Based on Choreographies, 1st International Workshop on Web Service Choreography and Orchestration for Business Process Management (BPM 2005), September 2005, Nancy, France [Chen et al., 1993] Chen, W., Kifer, M., and Warren, D. S. (1993). HILOG: A foundation for higher-order logic programming. Journal of Logic Programming, 15(3): [Haller et al., 2005] A. Haller, E. Cimpian, A. Mocan, E. Oren, and C. Bussler. WSMX - A Semantic Service-Oriented Architecture. International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2005), July [Kerrigan, 2006] Mick Kerrigan: Web Service Selection Mechanisms in the Web Service Execution Environment (WSMX), Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC), April, 2006, Dijon, France [Mandell and McIIraith, 2003] Daniel J. Mandell and Sheila A. McIlraith. Adapting BPEL4WS for the Semantic Web: The Bottom-Up Approach to Web Service Interoperation. In Proceedings of the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2003) [Mocan and Cimpian, 2005] Adrian Mocan, Emilia Cimpian: Mapping Creation Using a View Based Approach, 1st International Workshop on Mediation in Semantic Web Services (Mediate 2005), December 2005, Amsterdam, Netherlands

164 ESWC, Budva, References [Domingue et al., 2004] Domingue, J. Cabral, L., Hakimpour, F., Sell D., and Motta, E., (2004) IRS-III: A Platform and Infrastructure for Creating WSMO- based Semantic Web Services WSMO Implementation Workshop (WIW), Frankfurt, Germany, September,2004 [Feier et al., 2005] C. Feier, A. Polleres, R. Dumitru, J. Domingue, M. Stollberg, and D. Fensel. Towards intelligent web services: The web service modeling ontology (WSMO). International Conference on Intelligent Computing (ICIC), April [Fensel, 2001] Dieter Fensel, “Ontologies: Silver Bullet for Knowledge Management and Electronic Commerce”, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, [Fensel and Bussler, 2002] Fensel D. and Bussler C., "The Web Service Modeling Framework, WSMF," Electronic Commerce Research and Application, vol. 1, 2002 [Fensel, 2004] D. Fensel: Triple Space computing - Semantic Web Services based on persistent publication of information. In Proceedings of IFIP International Conference on Intelligence in Communication Systems, Pages 43-53, Bangkok, Thailand, November [Gruber, 1993] Thomas R. Gruber, “A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications”, Knowledge Acquisition, 5: , [Grosof et al., 2003] Grosof, B. N., Horrocks, I., Volz, R., and Decker, S. (2003). Description logic programs: Combining logic programs with description logic. In Proc. Intl. Conf. on the World Wide Web (WWW-2003), Budapest, Hungary.

165 ESWC, Budva, References [Haselwanter et al., 2005] Haselwanter, T.; Zaremba, Ma.., Zaremba Mi.: Enabling Components Management and Executions Semantics in WSMX. In Proceedings of the 2nd International WSMO Implementation Workshop (WIW 2005), Innsbruck, Austria, June [Keller et al., 2004] Keller, U.; Lara, R.; Polleres, A. (Eds): WSMO Web Service Discovery. WSML Working Draft D5.1, 12 Nov [Keller et al., 2005] Keller, U.; Lara, R.; Lausen, H.; Polleres, A.; Fensel, D.: Automatic Location of Services. In Proc. of the 2nd European Semantic Web Symposium (ESWS2005), Heraklion, Crete, [Kifer et al., 1995] Kifer, M., Lausen, G., and Wu, J. (1995). Logical foundations of object-oriented and frame-based languages. JACM, 42(4): [Kiffer et al., 2004] M. Kifer, R. Lara, A. Polleres, C. Zhao, U. Keller, H. Lausen and D. Fensel: A Logical Framework for Web Service Discovery. Proc. 1st. Intl. Workshop SWS'2004 at ISWC 2004,Hiroshima, Japan, November 8, 2004, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN [Li and Horrocks, 2003] Lei Li and Ian Horrocks. A software framework for matchmaking based on semantic web technology. In Proc. of the Twelfth International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2003), 2003 [Paolucci et al., 2002a] Massimo Paolucci, Takahiro Kawamura, Terry R. Payne, Katia Sycara; Importing the Semantic Web in UDDI. In Proceedings of Web Services, E-business and Semantic Web Workshop, 2002 [Paolucci et al., 2002b] Massimo Paolucci, Takahiro Kawamura, Terry R. Payne, Katia Sycara; "Semantic Matching of Web Services Capabilities." In Proceedings of the 1st International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2002), 2002

166 ESWC, Budva, References [Pan and Horrocks, 2004] Pan, J. Z. and Horrocks, I. (2004). OWL-E: Extending OWL with expressive datatype expressions. IMG Technical Report IMG/2004/KR-SW-01/v1.0, Victoria University of Manchester. Available from [Preist, 2004] Preist, C.: A Conceptual Architecture for Semantic Web Services. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2004), 2004, pp [Pollers et al., 2005] Axel Polleres, Holger Lausen, Jos de Bruijn and Dieter Fensel. WSML - A Language Framework for Semantic Web Services. W3C Workshop on Rule Languages for Interoperability, April [Stencil Group] - [Stolberg et al., 2004] Stollberg, M.; Keller, U.; Fensel. D.: Partner and Service Discovery for Collaboration on the Semantic Web. Proc. 3rd Intl. Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2005), Orlando, Florida, July [Stolberg et al., 2005] M. Stollberg, E. Cimpian, and D. Fensel. Mediating Capabilities with Delta-Relations. In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Mediation in Semantic Web Services, co-located with the Third International Conference on Service Oriented Computing (ICSOC 2005), Amsterdam, the Netherlands, [Stollberg et al., 2006] Michael Stollberg, Emilia Cimpian, Adrian Mocan, Dieter Fensel: A Semantic Web Mediation Architecture, Canadian Semantic Web Working Symposium (CSWWS 2006), June 2006, Québec city, Canada [Zaremba and Bussler, 2005] Zaremba, M. and Bussler, C.: Towards Dynamic Execution Semantics in Semantic Web Services. In Proceedings of the WWW 2005 Workshop on Web Service Semantics: Towards Dynamic Business Integration, 2005.

167 ESWC, Budva, Acknowledgements We would like to thank to all the members of the WSMO, WSML, and WSMX working groups for their advice and input into this tutorial. The WSMO working groups are funded by the European Commission under the projects ASG, DIP, Knowledge Web, SEKT, SemanticGov, SWWS, AKT and Esperonto; by Science Foundation Ireland under the DERI-Lion project; and by the Austrian government under the FIT-IT program


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