2Infectious Diseases - A disease caused by an agent that can pass from one living thing to another Communicable disease – an infectious disease that is passed from one person to another.
3What causes Inf.Dis.Bacteria - a type of microorganism that can cause disease.Strep throat, food poisoning, urinary tract infections.Viruses – a type of agent that can cause disease.Cold, flu, cold sores, measles, mono.
4How are they spreadAirContact with contaminated objectsPerson to personAnimals that spread diseaseFood and water
5Defenses against infection SkinChemical warfare on germs (sweat and oils produce acids that kill bacterial)Mucus membranesStomach acidsHelpful microorganismsInflammationsThe immune system
6Weapons T-cells – cells that regulate the action of the immune system Antibodies – substances that stick to the surface of pathogens slowing their action.B-cells – cells in the immune system that produce antibodies against infection
7Immunization – injection of a small amount of a pathogen that will provide protection against an infectious disease.Antibiotics – drugs that kill or limit the growth of bacteria.
9H – Human: virus can only infect humans I – Immuno-deficiency: the effect of the virus is to create a deficiency, a failure to work properly with the body’s immune system.V – Virus: one of its characteristics is that it is incapable reproducing by itself. It reproduces by taking over the machinery of the human cell
10How is HIV spread Bodily Fluids Blood Semen Vaginal secretions Breast milk
11Sexual ContactSexual intercourseOral sexAnal sex
12Blood to Blood Contact Sharing needles or syringes Tattooing - PiercingAccidental needle stick in a medical setting
13Incidental Cases Mother to baby during pregnancy and delivery Mother’s milk to babyDuring Dental Procedures
14The following body fluids are NOT infectious SalivaTearsSweatFecesUrine
15Signs and symptoms HIV There are no true signs of having HIV. One may experience flu – like symptoms of chills, fever, night sweats, rashes, etc.Some will have no signs or symptoms.
16How HIV Works HIV gets into the bloodstream HIV targets white blood cells (T4 cells)Virus slowly destroys T4 cellsForces T4 cells to make copies of HIVEventually the cell diesMoves on to other T4 cellsCan be up to 10 years before person shows signs
17Phases of HIV infection Infection with no signs or symptoms HIV – does not mean AIDSSigns and symptomsAIDS – T4 cells are less than 200 cells per microliter of blood or serious conditions from long-term, damage to immune systemOpportunistic Infections
18TestingELISA – blood test that identifies whether a person has antibodies for HIVWestern Blot Test – done to confirm the results of the Elisa test.Incubation Window – it can take 6 wks to 6 mths for anti. to form after exposure to HIV. This test should be done at least 6 wks after a person is or thinks they are infected.
20A – Acquired: a condition one must acquire or get infected with. I – Immune: it affects the body’s immune system, the part of the body which usually works to fight off germs such as bacteria and viruses.D – Deficiency: makes it not work properlyS – Syndrome: a group of symptoms
21Signs and symptoms of AIDS There are no common signs or symptoms for AIDSPeople may experience opportunistic infections – when the immune system is weakened and can attack the body.EX.- pneumonia.
22AIDS is not spread by:Casual contact – dry mouth kissing, hugging, being sneezed on or coughed on.Mosquito bites
23How to Protect yourself Abstinence %Have Safe Sex - Practice Monogamy – (when two people have intercourse with only each other for their entire lives).Don’t use dirty needlesGet tested
24Now that we have covered HIV and AIDS, What is the difference in them Now that we have covered HIV and AIDS, What is the difference in them? Are they the same thing? Why do these two things always get linked together? Is one more dangerous then the other?
26What is an STD?Sexually Transmitted Disease - is serious, sometimes painful, and can cause a lot of serious damage.
27How is STD SpreadSTD is spread during close, sexual activity. It is spread during vaginal, anal and oral sex.HIV and Hepatitis are also spread by contact with infected blood
28Most STD germs need to live in warm, moist areas Most STD germs need to live in warm, moist areas. That’s why they infect the mouth, rectum and sex organs.
29What to doGet checked outDon’t hope the STD will go away. It won’t!
30What to watch for Women * burning or itching around your vagina * an unusual discharge or smell from your vagina.* pain in your pelvic area – the area between your belly button and sex organs* burning or itching around your vagina
31* Bleeding from your vagina that is not your regular period. * Pain deep inside your vagina when you have sex.
32What to watch forMen* a drip or discharge from the penis, sores, bumps, or redness.
33Both men and women* Sores, bumps or blisters near your sex organs* burning and pain when you urinate or have a bowel movement*Need to urinate often
34* a swelling or redness in your throat Continued ……* Itching around your sex organs* a swelling or redness in your throat* Flu-like feelings with fever, chills and aches
35Continued…..men and women * swelling in your groin, the area around your sex organs
36How to protect yourself Talk to your partnerLook closely at your partner – signs of STDUse a latex condomGet checked
37Protect yourselfKnow the signs and symptomsGet treated - don’t have sex until your treatment is complete. Your partner needs to be treated too.
38This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.worldofteaching.com is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.