Presentation on theme: "ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEY The kidney is a retroperitoneal organ occupying the space slightly above the umbilicus. measures 6cm in the term new born and weighs."— Presentation transcript:
1 ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEYThe kidney is a retroperitoneal organ occupying the space slightly above the umbilicus. measures 6cm in the term new born and weighs 24gm.It has an outer layer called the cortex which contains the glomeruli, proximal tubule, convoluted tubule and the collecting ducts, while the medulla contains the straight portion of the tubule, the loops of henle and the terminal loops.Each kidney contains approximately 1m nephron(glomeruli + associated tubule) whose formation is complete at birth. The functional maturation of these occurs later.*NO NEW NEPHRON CAN BE FORMED AFTER BIRTH*
2 GLOMERULAR FILTRATION The glomeruli network of specialized capillaries serves as the filtering mechanism of the kidney. These capillaries are lined by endothelial cells having thin cytoplasm which contains fenestration. The glomeruli has 3layers:(i) lamina densa(ii) lamina rara interna(iii) Lamina rara externaThe visceral epithelial cells cover the capillary projects and the “foot processes”, between the foot processes are the filtration slits. Mesangium lies between the glomerular capillary on the endothelial side of BM forming medial wall of the capillary walls. It serves as a supporting structure for the capillary. It also plays a role in glomerular blood flow, filtration and removal of micro-molecules. The glomerulus is surrounded by the bow- mans capsule.Glomeruli filtration is the net result of opposing forces across the capillary walls and this forces arise from the systemic arterial pressures. The opposing force is the glomerulus capillary oncotic pressure created by plasma protein.
3 As blood passes through the glomeruli capillaries, plasma is filtered through the capillary walls. The ultra filtrate which is formed by passage of plasma through the glomerulus is cell free. It is collected in the bow-man space from where it enters the tubules while it gets modified according to the need of the body after which it leaves the body as urine.Filtration is modified by glomerula plasma flow ,hydrostatic pressure within the bowman space and the glomerula capillary wall permeability.Glomerular filtration begins in utero around the 9th week, the rate increases until growth ceases towards the end of the second decade of life.GFR in a child does not approximate that of adult till the third year of life.GFR may be estimated by measurement of serum creatinine level. It is of value in the steady state only and this is because the level does not rise above normal till GFR is <70% of normal.
4 Schwartz formular: k*height (cm)/scr The precise measurement of GFR is achieved by quantitating the clearance of a freely filtered substance across the capillary wall, such a substance is neither reabsorbed nor secreted by the tubules.GFR is 25ml/min/1.73m2 during the first 2-3days of post natal life in term neonate ,it increases 2-3 times during first week of life reaching adult values by 1-2 yrs.eGFR = (140-age)* weight*1.23/scrSchwartz formular: k*height (cm)/scr** k is a constantwhich is age dependent.
5 CONGENITAL PROBLEMS Renal Agenesis: This means that one of the renal anlarge either the mesonephric duct, and the ureteric bud or the metenephric blastema has failed to differentiate. It is a common cause of prenatal RF.It is seen in 1:1000-5:5000 birthsThere is male preponderance especially in the bilateral. It is sporadic. Familial tendency has been reported.It may be unilateral or bilateral; when unilateral, the ipsilateral fallopian tubes and other genital tracts structures may be absent.Bilateral agenesis reflects a greater supression of structures arising from posterior portion of cloaca, mesonephric and paramesonephric ducts and may thus affect the limbs and spine. In this, the fallopian tubes … are present but the uterus, vagina are absent or abnormal.
6 Clinical features Oligo hydramnous- due to lack of fetal micturition Postural deformities- due to oligihydramnousPotter facie/syndrome-widely seperated eyes, epicanthics folds, low set earsPrognosis-this is usually poor and affected by :Contralateral renal hypoplasiaContralateral nephrolithiasisInfectionAssociated anomalies of CVS, CNS and MSS.Death usually occurs in the peri-natal period and the usual cause of death is pulmonary hypoplasia
7 OTHER CONG ANOMALYHypoplasia: This refers to small kidneys and this small sized kidneys could arise from:Insufficient amount of metanephric blastema available for kidney production.Insufficient early ducts branching leading to low number of lobes.Reduced nephric induction or a retardation of postnatal tubule glomerular enlargement.the condition may be unilateral or bilateral.The unilateral is a common cause of HT in the first decade of life while bilateral causes CRF and is a leading cause of ESRD. The bilateral has two types vis :
8 i. Histologically normal Small kidney that may present with polyuria, acidosis, salt wasting and azotemia.ii. Oligomeganephronia/oligonephric hypoplasia usually present in the first or second year of life with polydipsia, polyuria, vomiting, diarrhoea and FTT. They develop renal insufficiency by end of first decade of life.Renal DysplasiaThis term refers to an altered structural differentiation of the fetal kidneys. Includes a spectrum of renal defects with certain features in common which may be an abnormally located urethral orifice or urinary tract anomalies which may produce unilateral, bilateral or segmental urinary tract obstruction. May remain asymptomatic if unilateral, many of them are associated with cystic changes.Pathogenesis (THEORIES)Toxic or physical injury occuring to the interacting ureteric bud and nephrogenic blastema extent of which is dependent on the stage of development. The damaging injury is usually believed to be due to increase HP due to either a complete or partial obstruction of the ureter or bladder outlet.The 2ary injury of the urethral bud and metanephric component occuring during the period of migration. This causes a failure of vascularization leading to ischaemia.Implies an intrinsic deficiency or the inadequate displacement of anlargen from the normal position.
9 VariantsMulticystic variety -most common type of renal dysplasia (cystic), dies in childhood, may be bilateral or unilateral. Bilateral is more common, seen in per 100,000Subtotal: this type is seen in association with megacystic,megaureter PUV, ureteroceleFeaturesmay be asymptomaticUrinary infectionRenal failure, HT, hematuriaMx: relief of the associated urinary obstruction.prevention of infection.Surgical : nephrectomy.
10 Multicystic dysplastic kidney -Has very little kidney tissue-10% of them have uretero- pelvic junction obstruction in the opposite kidney-May also have refluxMay suffer HT, recurrent urinary tract infection.Polycystic kidney disorderRenal cysts are abnormal fluid filled sacs arising in the renal parenchyma, may occur in cortex, medulla, or both regions of the kidney and may or may not be associated with other renal or systemic anomaly.they may be hereditary in which case they may be AR, AD, may also be acquiredAutosomal polycystic kidney Disorder (ADPKD)Incidence 1:1000, more common form of cystic disorder .It has no sex predelection.It is AD with complete penetrance with variable expression. The abnormal gene has been linked to alpha globin cluster located on chromosome 16 and ADPKD2 on chromosome 4.Types: infantile, neonataljuvenile, perinatalCLINICAL FEATURES.Hypoplastic lungsDie shortly from RFKidneys are enlarged and function poorlyMay have an associated hepatic fibrosis
11 PHT (GIT bleeding, hematemesis, melena) RUSS: Enlarged Kidneys, cystsIVP : For the excretory functionPrognosis: depends on PHT, renal failureInfantile:Hematuria, HTAbdominal painProtenuriaAnaemia in RF due to ADPKD is not as profound as that in other terminal renal dxJuvenile: - nocturia due to poor concentrating ability- abdominal swelling- hematuriaIVP: - i. deformity of collecting systemRUSS: - ii. Enlarged kidneys with multiple echo free areasCT:- contrast enhancement is prefered . It distinguishes between solid and liquid renal moss.Radioisotopic scanning using Te99 in labelled inappropriate is used in accessing and comparing renal tubule full, GF
12 AR polycystic kidney disease Seen in 1: live birthsHas variable expressionActual genetic defect is not knownAffects both the kidney and liver. It is a continuum with different presentations at different stages.Neonatal/Perinatal: - potter syndrome- rapidly fatalIf they survive, features are like that of the ADPKD. They may have pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax pnuemonia. HT, cardiac hypertrophy, CCF, endocardial fibroelastosis, UTIPHTRenal failureRUSSvery important which shows enlarged kidney with echogenecity in cortex, medulla.Poor collecting systemFuzzy deliniation of kidney from sorrounding tissues.CTPrenatal screening ----elevated alpha feto-protein.
13 Posterior Urethral valves Obstructive lesion of the urinary tract can occur at any level. Urinary tract obstruction can be congenital or acquired when it is due to trauma, neoplasia, though most obstructive lesion are due to congenital problems.There are different types and they include the following:bladder outlet and urethra e.g PUV, urethral strictures, phimosisUretero- pelvic junction e.g congenital stenosis, calculi, post surgicalUreter e.g congenital obstructive megaureter, uterocele, ureteral valvesPUV is the most common type of obstructive uropathy in children. The PUV are membranes with eccentric openings arising from the verumontanum in males. It is an exclusive disease of males.Pathogenesis: With the obstruction, there is dilatation and hypertrophy of the part proximal to the obstruction. There is increased intratubular pressure and renal plasma flow due to vasodilatory effect of prostanglandins, the persistence of this leads to a reduction in renal plasma flow due to increase in the interstitial pressure. The obstruction leads to hydronephrosis as this progresses further without relieve of the obstruction, there is renal parenchyma damage resulting from vesico urethral reflux of varying degrees and in severe cases dysplasia. The urinary stasis in the bladder due to the bladder neck hypertrophy increases the risk of infection and inflammation which will further worsen the obstruction and gives rise to poor stream of urine. With the persistence of obstruction, there is accumulation of toxin FTT, RF. There is reduction in both the concentrating ability of the kidney as well as the excretion of hydrogen ion.
14 Clinical features Blood Investigation Urinalysis Weak or poor stream of urine, flank massFeatures of sepsispost voiding dribsFTT PEx: palpable mass due to hydronephrosisUrinary ascites resulting from leakage from of urine due to increased pressure in the intra renal collecting system and rupture calyx into the peritoneal cavity.InvestigationTo make the diagnosis.Micturating cysto urethrogram which will show dilatation of the prostatic urethrea and transverse filling defects.RUSS: - evaluate kidney size,hydonephrosisIVP: presence of hydronephrosis, refluxBlood InvestigationFBC: - there may be presence of leucocytosis due to infection- AnaemiaE, U, Cr: elevated urea and creatinine in presence of renal failureUrinalysisPrenatal diagnosisMx- Surgical: i. Mainly where the ablation of the valves through a tran urethral approachii. Temporary vesicotomyiii. Cutaneous pyelostomy in case of suspected dysplasia or irreversible renal damage.
15 Medical Complications Prognosis Treat infection. Dialysis when indicated.ComplicationsUrinary incontinence in about 50% from dilation of prostratic urethra, poor bladder compliance and or surgical damage to the sphincter.VUR is present in 2/3 Recurrent UTIPrognosisVUR worsens prognosis
16 URINARY TRACT INFECTION Introduction: Urine is an excellent cultural medium for bacteria and this becomes more important in the presence of UTO with development of residual urine volumes thus allowing for X of organism. It is particularly difficult to diagnose in < 2yrsUTI refers to the inversion of UTI by pathogenic organisms. It is of great significance in childhood due to the formation of scars which could occur within 5yrs of life and could be a major factor contributing to development of HT, renal failure. UTI include cystitis, pyelonephritis.Breast feeding has been associated with reduced risk of UTI in child < 6 months because of the low solutes load on the kidneys and it also inhibit colonization of the gut by coliforms.
17 EPIDEMIOLOGYBacteriuria is influenced by the age, sex and method of diagnosis.Incidence: this varies according to the age and sex.NNates: 1-4% M>FInfants: &(2%) M=F1-7yrs: %(5%) F>M>7yrs: 2.5% F>MFactorsOrganisms: 60-80% are caused by E-coliGram -ve: Proteus spp, Klebsiella, Serratia,Pseudomonas Enterobacteris acct for 5-10%Gram +ve: Staph epidermidisStaph aureusStrept ViridansFungal: Candida, Cryptococcus ,AspergillusViral: Mumps, Herpes-simplex, Adenovirus.Risk factorsA. Organisms: presence of virulence factors in the E-coli which include thei. mannose sensitive common, pilli which is responsible for anchoring E-coli to the mucus in LI and thereby allowing colonizationii. P-pilli : Agglutinate human RBC carrying the P-blood group antigeniii. Afrimbial adhesions in the uropathogenic E-coli, these are different from pilli.iv. Toxins which are lipopolysacharide: They are cytolytic and creates pores in cell membrane causing inflammation and appears to be responsible for symptoms.Others include production of siderophores and K+ ag which avoids opsonization.
18 Types: Acute pyelonephrits Chronic pyelonephritis B. Host factors:i. females are more susceptible than males from the infancyii. Washing action of urineiii. P blood groupiv. Presence of immuno suppressants either from drugs or other illnesses like DM, SCA.v. presence of UTO and other anatomic defects-eg PUVvi. Male sex: uncircumcission is a risk especially in < 1 yrsvii. Hx of prematurity is said to increase the risk of bacteriuriaviii. Pin worm infestationix. Labial fusionx. bubble bath, constipation and encopresis.Pathogenesis: This can be hematogenous or through an ascending infection via the urethra Hematogenous is commoner in neonates. Once the organisms gains entrance, it adheres thus resisting flushing during voiding and attaches itself through the kag which Φ(inhibit) phagocytosis releasing endotoxin causing inflammation. The formation of intra cellular biofilms in bladder walls also protects bacteria from rupture into bladder lumen thus producing bacteriuria for recurrent infection.With the inflammation there is enlargement of the kidneys due to inflammatory infiltrates in the medulla and pelvis, this may lead to formation of abcess (micro) which could also progress to renal scarring. The risk of renal scarring is greatest with presence of VUR.Clinical typesTypes: Acute pyelonephritsChronic pyelonephritis
19 Symptoms May be asymptomatic. Symptoms will include: N-Nates: nonspecific - vomitting, irritability, diarrhoea, poor feeding, failure to thriveinfants and toddlers: fever, (>38°C - 40°C)Older children: freq, urgency, dysuria, abdominal pain, enuresis, flank pain, hematuriaSigns: ±HT- suprapubic tenderness, renal angle tender (RAT)- dehydration if vomitting is severe.DIAGNOSIS.Confirmation of diagnosis is based on a properly collected specimen with a positive growthInvestigationUrinalysis: Best specimen for this and MCS is the suprapubic aspirate.MSU can also be used.- WBC > 5HPF, casts,- pH-proteus produces alkaline pH- microscopic hematuriaUrine MCS: any colony count following a SPA is diagnostic100,000 cfil/ml – female10,000 cfil/ml - maleBlood MCS: may reveal bacteremiaProcalcitonnin level may help to differentiate between upper UTI and lower UTI.
20 CRP > 20mg/l sensitive but not predictive WBC: leucocytosisRUSS: - size corticomedullary difference, hydronephrosis, calculi- presence or absence of renal, peri -renal abscesses.- acute lobar nephroniaDMSA( dimecaptosuccinic acid)- parenchymal filling defect in acute pyelonephritisIt is superior to RUSS and IVUMCUG: may be indicated in suspected anatomic anomaly e.g reflux, PUV.IVU: - produces information regarding precise anatomic image- estimate renal function not reliable for detecting renal scarring or pyelonephritis- large dose radiation is requiredRenal cortical scintigraphyvery sensitive in detecting renal cortical defectsdetects pyelonephritis and renal scarring earlylittle radiation is requiredCT: - more sensitive in detecting pyelonephritis- but expensive- can change acute lobar nephroniaComplicationBacteremiaRenal scarring
21 HTAcute lobar nephroniarepresents progression of acute pyelonephritisit is a precursor of renal abscessESKDChronic UTITreatment: Specific -antibiotics for 14days-CTM, Ceftiaxone, Amoxyl/clavulanicSupportive -hydration, feedingLong term prophylaxisPersistent VURUTOUnderlying voiding dysfunction (dysfunction urine elimination syndrome).Prognosis: Good if discovered and managed properly
22 PREVENTION Discourage FGM Male to be circumcised on time Frequent and prompt change of baby diapersEarly detection and repair of obstructive uropathiesPerineal care especially in females.
23 NEPHROTIC SYNDROME Introduction: NS is the clinical manifestation of many morphologically distinct glomerular disease. It is also called nephrosis. It is a leading cause of childhood renal disorders. Has diverse etiology with distinct glomerular histopathology and clinical course.It can be congenital or acquired.Definition: it is a clinical syndrome characterized by the following1. Heavy protenuriaa. urinalysis protein selectivityb. > 50mg/kg/day IgG/a/b <0.2- selectivec. > 1gm/m2/dayd. > 40mg/m2/hr >0.2 non selectivee. urinary pr/cr >2 (<0.2 normal)2. Hypo albuminemia < 2.5g/dl3. Oedema4. Hyper cholesteronemia >200mg/dl
24 EPIDEMIOLOGY Incidence 2-7 :100,000 per year Age 2-6years in the caucasians5-8years in blacks.Sex M>F in early childhoodM=F in adolescent
26 ETIOLOGY CONTD Secondary Systemic illnesses like goodpasture syndrome Henoch schonlein purpura.Malignancies like burkitts lymphoma,leukemiaToxins like bee stingInfections like HBV, CMV,HIVANMetabolic like DM,Miscellaneous massive obesity, SCA, reflux nephropathy
27 Albuminuria/hypoalbumenia: PATHOGENESISAlbuminuria/hypoalbumenia:There is T-cell dysfunction with alteration of cytokines which leads to loss of the negatively charged glycoprotein producing an increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The permeability of GBM heavy urinary loss of albumin, with renal loss of albumin catabolism is increased hence the greater tendency of hypoalbuminemia.Hepatic synthesis of albumin is also insufficient at this time to keep up with the urinary loss.
28 Oedema: There is altered distribution of albumin Oedema: There is altered distribution of albumin. Normally about 30-50% (150gm) of albumin is located in the intravascular compartment while the rest is in the interstitial space. When there is hypoalbuminemia, the total exchangeable albumin is reduced. This produces a distruption of renal mechanism of the extracellular fluid which correlates to the severity of oedema.The reduced albumin leads to reduced plasma oncotic pressure modifying transudation of fluid from the IVS into the Is producing hypovolemia which stimulates RAA and the ADH producing Na+, H2O accumulation. This Na and H2O retention further worsens fluid shift due to the low O.P as it exercerbates albuminemia. The hypovolemia reduces GFR ARF
29 LIPIDEMIALipoproteins are responsible for the transportation of lipids hence when there is hypoalbuminemia the lipoprotein level is reduced and the circulating levels of lipids is increasedThere is also the inhibition of LPL by the circulating plasma factor due to deficiency of Apo C which is lost in the urine.↑production of VLDL
30 Clinical FeaturesSymptomsHx Usually a male childOedema which the mother first notices as fullness of the face especially on waking up which regresses as the day goes by or she notices tightening of clothing. The oedema later progresses to the feet when it is pitting generalizedAnorexiaAbdominal painOliguriaAnuria
31 PE: - darkening around the periorbital - increase weight for age- muehrcke’s nails (2 horizontal white stripes due to hypoalbuminemia)- pitting pedal oedema ± anarsarca- CVS: PR - small volume, regularfeatures of shock may be foundBP -High Or N (25% have HT)RS – respiratory distress in presence of pulmonary oedema –CNS: lethargic, anxious
32 COMPLICATIONS INFECTIONS. Reduced Ig, opsonization of bacteria Hypo-complementamiaReduced bactericidal activity of leucocytesReduced splenic function due to ↓perfusionEdema fluid is a good mediumProtein loss →malnutritionThe most common infection is 1ry peritonitis caused by Strept pneumococcus.Others are septicemia, UTI,cellulitis.
33 COMPLICATIONS CONTD Thrombosis Due to hypovolemia which cause circulatory sluggishness.Increased viscocity↓plasma antithrombin↑plasma concentration of coagulation factors(5,7,8,10)Φof fibrnolysis↑platelet aggregation
34 COMPLICATION CONTD CVA Results from thrombotic phenomenon Could be fatalRenal failureDue to reduced GFRLow Vit D, T3,Zinc
35 MCNS This the commonest of the NS Seen in 85% of cases of the idiopathic NSAlso known as lipoid nephrosis10% may have microscopic hematuriaC3 level is normal in themNormal GBM on microscopyIF shows occasional mesangial depositEM shows effacement of foot process
37 MANAGEMENTSteroid Month 1 -2mg/kg(60mg/m2)Month 2 -2mg/kg alternate dayMonth 3 -Tapering of steroid over 2-4wksDiureticImmunosuppressants CPM 2-3mg/kg * 8-12wksSupportive: -daily weight-I/O-BP monitoring-daily urinalysis-Tx of ARF if present-prevention of infection pneumococcal vacmalaria prophylaxisDiet salt restrictionprotein
38 MANAGEMENT CONTD Steroid responsive Urinalysis negative for 3days consecutivelySteroid resistant failure to induce remissionSteroid dependent relapse of features as steroid is being tailed offRelapseoccurrence of proteinuria with 2 wks discontinuation of steroid
39 COMPLICATION OF STERIOD Complication of steroidCataractUlcerStriaeHTInfection .Nuchal fat deposit (bufalow hump)Growth retardationOsteoporosisMood changesAcneProximal myopathy
40 COMPLICATION OF DIURETIC HypokalemiaHypochloremic metabolic alkalosisHypercalcuria
43 PROGNOSIS Histologic type Frequency of relapse Associated complications
44 GlOMERULO NEPHRITIS INTRODUCTION: Disorders of glomerula structures and functions constitute a major problem with the practise of nephrology. It is a disorder of structure and functional anomaly with either or both structural and functional anomaly. The manifestation of glomerular diseases can be grouped according to various combination of cardinal expressions of the injury and these include protenuria, hematuria, ↓GFR, HT, circulatory congestion (alteration of Na excretion). The disorder is characterized by heterogeneous inflammatory changes. It is of an abrupt onset with a tendency to spontaneous recovery.It may be acute or chronic. The chronic type is a common cause of ESKD in children. Hematuria and proteinuria are non specific expression of glomerular disease .Epidemiologyorganism: group A streptococcus contains1,2,3,4,12,12,18,25,49,55,57Host : latent period of days (> 3wks in some)genetic susceptibilityAge: yrs rare before 2yrsSex: M>F
45 ETIOLOGY INTRINSIC Post streptococcal GN Diffuse proliferative GN Mesangial proliferative GNFocal segmental glomerulosclerosisMembranous glomerulopathyRapidly progressive GN
47 PATHOGENESISIn the idiopatic or primary GN. It is mainly an immune mediated disease based on the Ag provocation, genetic predisposition and immune mediated damage to the glomerular.In the immune mediated damage, the presence of circulating anti GBM ab leads to cell mediated injury by neutrophils and macrophages as well as the mediators of inflammation including the complement system, coagulation system, i.e both humoral and cell mediated mechanisms are involved. Humoral in the formation of Ag-Ab complex. There are nephritogenetic Ags which are unknown except for collagen IV and anti GBM. The T cells are activated and the subset Th1 and Th2 are said to generate different immune effectors responses.There is the proliferation of all the mesangial, endothelial and epithelial cells which may sometimes block the lumen
48 PATHOPHYSIOLOGYThe circulating factor increases glomerular permeability from loss of negatively charged glycoprotein and this leads to loss of protein in urine though not as much as NS and it is non selective.The presence of inflammatory changes involving the GBM leads to hematuria which may either be gross or microscopic.There is ↓GFR RAA, ANP →NA+, H20 of the leads to fluid retention and circulatory congestionGFR …↓RPFUrinary concentrating ability is preserved-Na+,Ca4 excretion are reduced-H+,K+ impairment due to ECF volume expansion
49 CLINICAL FEATURES Hx of passage of dark smoky urine Hx of preceeding sore throat, skin infectionHx facial or pedal oedema, seizure, oliguria, anorexia** GROSS HEMATURIA, HT,OLIGURIA ARE THE HALL MARK OF DIAGNOSISP.E - HT, oedema- respiratory distress in presence of severe fluid accumulation- seizures, HT- HT encaphalopathy and may be unconsciousUrinalysis: - pH-acid- colour-dark smoky urine- red cell casts commonlyleucocyte (pyuria)- waxy –suggest pre existing nephritis- pr- +,2+ not massive<500mg/dl-non selective pr (>0.2 IgG/alb)-Na+, Ca2+ reduced-FeNa <0.5%
50 E&U -↑Cl,..-↓Na (dilutional),-↑K+ especially if there is oliguriaThroat Swab- grp A strept organismASO >200 todds unit often attained 3wksmay be negative in cases of early antibiotic therapy for pharyngitismay be normal if GN followed impetigoStreptozyme:-useful screening bcos it combines with several anti streptococcal abComplement: -C3 low in the early course of disease- return to normal </= 8/52FBC - anaemiadilutional or due to blood lossRx: Rx HT when present :diureticanti HTDiet: normal proteinLow salt when there is HT
51 PREVENTIONPrevention:-Antibiotics-may reduce the incidence with prompt usage in strept infection-improved personal hygieneComplication-HTencephalopathy-renal failure-hyperkalemia-fluid overload-CCF
52 BIOPSY Indication for Bx -anuria, -prolonged severe oliguria -persistent or marked hematuria-persistent protenuria-low C3 for >3 months
53 DIALYSIS Indication for dialysis: -severe refractive hyperkalemia -pulmonary congestion- persistent and marked hematuria
54 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Ig A nephropathyATNAlport syndromeSCA glomerulopathyUTIHUS
55 PROGNOSIS Immediate prognosis is favourable Pointers of poor prognosis Persistent proteinuriaCresentric lesionProlonged severe oliguria
56 CHRONIC GLOMERULONEPHRITIS A clinical expression of wide variety of glomerular disease with a protracted course.It is often asymptomatic and there is reduction in renal mass and leads to ESKD.Pathogenesis- continued activity of the 1° basic lesion- superimposed hypertensive arterionephrosclerosis- hyper lipidemia- hemodynamically mediated glomerular sclerosis- chronic tubulo interstitial injuryClinical featurespersistent urinary anomaly after PSAGN e.g protenuria, sediments, hermaturia-renal failure, HTLater: biochemical and metabolic derangements.Uremia
57 Renal failureAcute renal failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Morbidities like electrolyte derangements, disordered coagulation and endocrine dysfunction are common.Some definitions:Oliguria: reduction in U.O <= 300ml/m2 or <1ml/kg/hrAnuria: reduction in U.O to < 1ml kg/dayPolyuria: urine output > 4ml kg/hrAzotemia: high nitrogeneous waste indicated by high ureaUraemia: symptom complex reflecting organ dysfunction occurring when the kidney fails to regulate body compositionThe cause of RF may be prerenal, intrinsic renal or post renal. The commonest causes in pediatrics are often pre-renal and are due largely to preventable causes , least common cause is post renal. 50% ARF in children are non oliguric.Definition: defined as a sudden, rapid and progressive deterioration in renal function manifesting as a rise in plasma urea, creatinine and accompanied by oliguria and occasionally polyuriaRecently referred to AKI
58 EPIDEMIOLGYCauses are largely due to preventableM > F 2:1Age: < 5 yrs – 10 yrsInfants and young children are most vulnerableIncidence: true incidence is not known as ARF is often missed in NB.in most cases 2° causes of ARF predominates especially in developing countries, however in other countries 1° causes predominates e.g HUS, AGN.Seen in 5% of ICU admissionMortality 25%
60 pathogenesisARF evolves in 3 stagesInitiation: results from reduced renal perfusion due to reduction in total effective circulating blood volume. At this stage, there is no kidney damage. The reduction in CBV reduces cortical blood flow, GFR. This is reversible if the causes of ↓CBV is addressed fast if this goes beyond a “critical level” renal damages occur.Maintenance: persistently↓ GFR if the disease is not reversed or the cause of renal failure if not intrinsic is not reversed, there comes an alteration in the intrarenal hemodynamics. There is passive backflow across the injured tubular cells into the peritubular capillaries.Recovery: This will depend on the removal of sub lethally injured cells, necrotic cells, casts as well. There is regeneration of renal cells to restore normal renal function. The factors inducing these are not known..
61 CLINICAL FEATURES Fluid retention Oliguria Oedema Dyspnnea HT→convulsionCCFFeatures of underlying diseasePallorAcidotic breathing
62 INVESTIGATIONPre renal RenalUrineSG > <1.020Osmolality <350Na <20 >20Fe Na <1 >1Una / PcrBUN >20 <20Blood – Na, ↑K+,↑ urea, ↓HCO3, PCV↓Na+ - due to dilution↓C3 AGN↓Ca2+ ↑PO4CXR- cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestionRUSS-IVPECG- ↑K , arrhythmia
63 MANAGEMENTMx: Fluid and ElectrolyteRestriction to previous days output and the insensible lossGIT bleedingHTSeizuresIndication for dialysisAcidosisElyte anomaly especially ..K+Fluid overload, CCFCNS disturbances (symptomatic …..)BleedingPrognosis-Depends on the underlying etiology-mortality-10-60%
64 CHRONIC RENAL FAILUREThis is an irreversible reduction in GFRPrevalence at 18 per millionCause may be congenital or acquiredKDQI defines chronic kidney disease (CKD) as a kidney damage GFR of <60ml/m2/1.73m2 for >= 3 months. Whatever is the kidney cause, there is irreversible sclerosis and loss of nephrons which leads to ↓GFR20% of renal functionClinical stagingStage 1- kidney damage with normal GFR > 90ml/nim2- mild reduction in GFR ml/mm/1.73m23- mod reduction in GFR ml/mm/1.73m24- severe “ “ “ “ “ “ “5- kidney failure GFR < 15ml/mm
65 AETIOLOGY Age dependent <5yrs commonly from anatomic anomalies > 5yrs. Acquired glomerular dxGN, UTO, REFLUX,CONG ANOM,UTI have been found to be leading causes of CRF across the globe.
66 PATHOGENESISWhatever is the cause of unresolved renal failure, the injury progresses despite the removal of the insult.1- hyperfiltration sets in as a loss of nephron occurs this is to maintain renal function, the other nephrons undergo structural and functional hypertrophy characterised by↑ GBF thereby increasing the driving force of the surviving nephrons. This compensation temporarily relieves total renal function but as the injury progresses, elevated hydrostatic pressure in the capillary wall integrity coupled with protein toxic effect due to increase passage of protein thru the GBM, the surviving nephrons undergo sclerosis resulting in a vicious cycle.2 - proteinuria also causes a decline in GFR due to a direct toxic effect on the glomerular capillary and recruitment of macrophage promoting sclerosis and interstitial tubulo fibrosis arteriolar nephrosclerosis3 - ↑ PO4 CA- PO4 deposition in renal interstitium and blood vessel4 – lipdaemia causes oxidation mediated injury5 – HT
67 Pathophysiology- hyper kelemia dvps when GFR is < 25ml/min due to the red K excretionMetabolic acidosis: kidneys are unable to produce enough ammonia in proximal tubule to excrete endogeneous acidECF expansion due to Na , H2O retentionAnaemia: Normochromic, normocytic due to reduced erythropoetin production , reduced dietary intake, reduced RBC survival time, bleeding tendencies from uremia induced platelet dysfunction20 HPTH due to red Ca2+ from the reduction in production of 1,25 dihydro-cholecalciferol + hyperphosphatemia
68 CLINICAL FEATURES Specific and non-specific Non-specific: headache, fatique, lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, growth failureSpecific: anaemia, oliguria, anuria, puffiness
69 InvestigationRUSS: small echogenic kidneys in ESRDpolycystic kidney in structural anomaliesRenal radionucleid scan: Renal artery stenosis may be performed with captopril though unreliable when GFR<30CT scan: can define presence of cystMRI: useful in RVT, RASVCUG: VURUrine: urinalysis- Pr: glomerular or TI problemsWBC: inetrstinal nephritis especially with eosinophiluriaSpot urine for total protein : cr2.0g in glomerular rangeg in nephrotic range< 2.0g tubulo interstial problem24 HUP –total protein- CRCLBlood: serum conplements-in case of AGN-anti GBM abodies-suggestive of good pastures syndromeHB, HC, Retroviral screeningSerum E,U Na, urea, Cl-, K+, HCO3Ca red Ca2+PO4 incLipid profile
70 Treatment Goal is to delay progression if possible Treatment of pathologic manifestationRenal transplantationTreatment of underlying condition like UTI, GNtides, control BP, especially ACE inhibitors to delay progression through the reduction of pr excretioncontrol of lipidemiaavoid nephrotoxinsB. Anaemia-avoid blood Txdo not initiate Tx till PCV is <30% and aim to maintain PCV at 30%Tx Fe def either orally or parenteralErythropoetin either SC or IVC. ElectrolyteD. Diet – protein restrictionK+, Na+,
72 RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY Refers to alternative way of helping the body get rid of toxins.Consists of dialysis and transplantation.Dialysis APD, HD, CPD
73 DIALYSISThis is a form of therapeutic intervention where the body is cleansed of toxinsCareful assessment of co-morbid state is needed before prescribing dialysisThere are different types of dialysis
74 PERITONEAL DIALYSIS This is often used in neonate and infants Peritoneal membrane is used as the filterTypes includeAPDCAPDIn peritoneal dialysis an hyper-osmolar fluid/dialysate is infused into the peritoneal cavityThe infused dialysate is allowed to stay for 45’-60’The fluid is then drained either manually or a cyclerThis removes fluid and electrolyteThis is however CI in abdominal disorders.
75 HEMODIALYSISThis is useful for removal of small particles such as urea and electrolytesThe ultrafiltration in this is driven by the generation of negative hydaulic pressure on the dialysate on the dialysate side of the dialyserComponents areartificial kidney or dialyserdialysate (the fluid )delivery system ie mechanical deviceThe flow of blood and the dialysate are critical determinants of the effectiveness of the procedure
76 HEMODIALYSIS CTD ADVANTAGES reduces neurologic complications inter-dialysis weight gain is lesslow inter dialysis solute accumulationDone thrice a week.Types include the intermittent that is useful in patient with stable hemodynamics, removes both fluid and elyte and uses pump driven extracoporeal circuit
77 CRRT This is another type of hemodialysis Used in patient that a unstable hemodynamically in which there is concomitant sepsis and multi organ failureRemoves fluids, elyte, small and medium solutes continuouslyThere are different typesCVVH –F(filtration)CVVH-D(dialysis)CVVH- DF(hemodiafiltration) this is the most effective of all
78 COMPLICATIONS OF DIALYSIS Abdominal painBleedingElectrolyte imbalanceHyperglycemiaHypotensionPeritonitisVascular thrombosisinfection
79 Renal transplantation the optimal treatment for children with ESRD is an early RT. RT is not a cure for ESRD. The first successful transplant was done in BOSTON in 1954 between identical twinsIndication: .ESRD1. Process: involvedDonor:- :living related donor ( LRD-RT)cadaveric related donor (CAD-RT)2. TestsMHC blood group HB, HC3. Immuno supression azathxopine, cycloproxine, low dose steroid4. counselling:-PrePostComplication: 1.rejection-acute early< 60/7-late acute-chronic2. recurrence of some of the dx3. surgical Cx4. lnfxAcute – red U.O, low BP, fever, pain, tenderness swelling- occuring within 60 days