2Endocrine System A collection of glands Produce hormones Regulates body’s growthMetabolismSexual development &function
3Glands Pancreas – Controls Glucose Pineal - This is involved Parathyroid – Maintainscalcium levelPituitary – influence variousOther endocrine glandsThymus – influences thebody’s immune systemThyroid – heatproduction, bonegrowth andthe metabolismPineal - This is involvedwith daily biological cyclesAdrenal - has two partsInfluences metabolismInfluences part ofNervous systemHypothalamus –Controls involuntaryBody functionsOvaries & Testicles –Influence female andMale characteristics
4Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Glands are found inside each otherButterfly shaped glandFound inside the neckLess then one once, (parathyroid) size of a grain of riceThyroid cartilage covers the larynxProduces the prominence on the neckThis is known as the Adams Apple
5Roles and Functions of the Thyroid & Parathyroid Thyroids:Controls the rate at which the body produces energy from nutrientsRegulates metabolismProduces:Triiodothyonine (T3)Thyroxine (T4)Calcitonin Parathyroids:Control the calcium in our bodies
6Triiodothyonine(T3) Iodine-rich and fuel metabolism Plays a role in growth, metabolism, and developmentPromotes normal growth of bones and increases strength and respiration.Maintain the rate that your body uses fats and carbohydrates
7Thyroxine(T4) Regulate the body’s metabolic rate by forming RNA Production is controlled by Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)Produced by the Pituitary Gland.
8Calcitonin Regulates amount of calcium in blood Decrease bone destruction caused by cancer.Benefits disappear shortly after it has not been taken by the body.Produced by the cells of the thyroid.
9Hyperthyroidism Overactive thyroid Swelling of the thyroid Causes Grave’s diseaseToxic adenomaPlummer’s diseaseThyroiditisProduces too much T4Overactive thyroidSwelling of the thyroidSymptomsSudden weight lossAppetite and amount of food intake remain the same or increase.Rapid heartbeatNervousAnxiety and irritabilityFrequent bowel movementsSleeping difficulty,Skin thinningHair-fine and brittle
10Hypothyroidism Causes Autoimmune disease Hyperthyroidism treatment Radiation therapyThyroid surgeryCongenitalIodine deficientUnderactive thyroidGlands fails to secrete T3 and T4SymptomsIncreased sensitivity to coldConstipationWeight gainPuffy facePain, swelling or stiffness in jointsDepressionImpaired memoryDry skinGoitre-swelling that results in a bulge in the neck.May not notice at first, but over time signs become more apparent-Animation
12Unique Facts Can be tested for hypothyroidism. To get rid of hyperthyroidism-use radioactive iodine/surgery/pills to kill swelling.Hypothyroidism can happen to women during or after their pregnancy.14% of the population has one or two additional thyroid glands.The thyroid gland weighs one ounce
13Concept Check1. What is the difference between the Thyroid and the Parathyroid glands?The Thyroid gland: controls the rate at which the body produces energy from nutrients and regulates metabolism.The Parathyroid glands: Regulates the calcium in your body.2. How many glands are there in the endocrine system?There are 9 glands
14Concept Check Continued 3. What is the difference between T3, T4 and calcitonin?T3 maintains the rate at which your body uses fats and carbsT4 regulates your body’s metabolism by producing RNACalcitonin regulates the amount of calcium in your body.4. List three causes and symptoms for hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidsim.Hypothyroidism:Causes: Autoimmune disorder, hyperthyroidism treatment, thyroid surgerySymptoms: Increased sensitivity to cold, puffy face and constipationHyperthyroidism:Causes: Grave’s disease, toxic adenoma and thyroiditisSymptoms: Weight loss, nervous, and rapid heartbeat
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