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TTMG 5103 Techniques and Tools for Exploring all Human Knowledge and Nature June 9, 2009 Christiane Aitken TIM Program, Carleton University

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Agenda Management Challenge Objective Structured Abstraction Solving technical contradictions Separation Principles Solving physical contradictions 76 Standard Solutions Solving system problems Biomimicry Finding proven-true solutions directly from nature Lessons Learned Conclusion References

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Managerial Challenge Directing innovation is important when technical team has exhausted internal creativity and resources Managing innovation to find the best solution in the most efficient manner leads to quickest time-to-market

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Objective What will be learned How to solve technical and physical contradictions How to solve system problems How to access nature to find a proven-true solution

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Objective (cont.) What can be done with this knowledge Take your project and apply each technique for a solution Research further the tools that you can best apply

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Agenda Management Challenge Objective Structured Abstraction Solving technical contradictions Separation Principles Solving physical contradictions 76 Standard Solutions Solving system problems Biomimicry Finding proven-true solutions directly from nature Lessons Learned Conclusion References

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Structured Abstraction Old way: An improvement in one system characteristic (parameter) results in the deterioration of another TRIZ way: Solve the contradiction without compromises Structured approach to problem solving More powerful than brainstorming

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Structured Abstraction (cont.) Used for technical contradiction problems When two variables contradict each other: airplane wing strength vs. light weight Used to innovate a solution when a functional contradiction exists Can be completed in 4 steps Identification Abstraction Converging Application

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Step 1 – Identify the Contradiction Usually evident to engineers Think how one part of a system affects another Example: car stability vs. space

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Step 2 – Abstract the Problem Translate the problem into associated parameters 39 Problem Parameters chart 1. Weight of moving object 2. Weight of non-moving object 3. Length of moving object 4. Length of non-moving object 5. Area of moving object 6. Area of non-moving object 7. Volume of moving object 8. Volume of non-moving object 9. Speed 10. Force 11. Tension, pressure 12. Shape 13. Stability of object 14. Strength 15. Durability of moving object 16. Durability of non-moving object 17. Temperature 18. Brightness 19. Energy spent by moving object 20. Energy spent by non-moving object 21. Power 22. Waste of energy 23. Waste of substance 24. Loss of information 25. Waste of time 26. Amount of Substance 27. Reliability 28. Accuracy of measurement 29. Accuracy of manufacturing 30. Harmful factors acting on object 31. Harmful side effects 32. Manufacturability 33. Convenience of use 34. Repairability 35. Adaptability 36. Complexity of device 37. Complexity of control 38. Level of automation 39. Productivity

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Step 3 – Converge on Inventive Principles Translate the problem into associated parameters 40 Inventive Principles chart Derived from over 2 million patented innovation 1. Segmentation 2. Extraction 3. Local conditions 4. Asymmetry 5. Consolidation 6. Universality 7. Nesting 8. Anti-weight 9. Prior counteraction 10. Prior action 11. Cushion in advance 12. Equipotentiality 13. Inversion 14. Spheroidality 15. Dynamicity 16. Partial or excessive action 17. Shift to a new dimension 18. Mechanical vibration 19. Periodic action 20. Continuity of useful action 21. Rushing through 22. Convert harm into benefit 23. Feedback 24. Mediator 25. Self-service 26. Copying 27. Disposable object 28. Replacement of a mechanical system 29. Pneumatic or hydraulic construction 30. Flexible ‘shells’ or thin films 31. Porous material 32. Change the color 33. Homogeneity 34. Rejecting or regenerating parts 35. Transforming the physical/chemical state 36. Phase transition 37. Thermal expansion 38. Strengthen oxidation 39. Inert environment 40. Composite materials

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Step 3 – Converge on Inventive Principles (cont.) Apply to Contradiction Matrix for possible solutions Link 2 Problem Parameters on Contradiction Matrix One to four Inventive Principles are found at link

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Step 3 – Converge on Inventive Principles (cont.) Contradiction Matrix

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Step 4 – Apply the Inventive Principles You know how it needs to be resolved (from the matrix) Come up with a specific solution: 4, 7. Nesting, 14, 17 Apply abstract logic with your technical team

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Moment of Truth – Structured Abstraction Discussion Example Think of a new technology Find a contradiction Determine the inventive principle

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Agenda Management Challenge Objective Structured Abstraction Solving technical contradictions Separation Principles Solving physical contradictions 76 Standard Solutions Solving system problems Biomimicry Finding proven-true solutions directly from nature Lessons Learned Conclusion References

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Separation Principle Similar to Structured Abstraction Structured approach to problem solving without compromises Split innovation problem in 4 ways Physical contradictions: space, information, temperature, condition Applicable when you need two or more parameters for the same scenario

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Separation Principle Can be completed in 3 steps Step 1: Identification Step 2: Separation Heuristics Step 3: Resolve physical contradiction Example: landing gear is required on a plane for take off but it’s not desirable because it causes drag

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Step 1 – Identify the Physical Contradiction Find which part of the system or variable contradicts with itself Example: industrial frozen food needs to unload frozen food from trays but frozen food sticks together and defrosting it is expensive

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Step 2 – Consider Separation Heuristics 4 Separation Principles: time, space, scale, condition Separation in time example: landing gear Separation in space example: laptop Separation in scale example: chain Separation in condition example: frozen food

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Step 3 – Resolve Physical Contradiction Carry forward the contradictory element: Unloading loose, frozen material by first defrosting it can be an expensive procedure Define the different periods: T1, T2, T3 T1: food sticks together while freezing T2: food becomes loose during separation T3: food must remain loose after separation Complete logic statement Food must be frozen during time T1, T3 Food must be loose during time T2, T3

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Step 3 – Resolve Physical Contradiction Solution Apply more cold! Lower the temperature of food with liquid nitrogen so that food pieces become more brittle and break apart during tumbling

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Moment of Truth – Separation Principles Discussion Find physical contradictory problems Example Discuss solutions employed

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Agenda Management Challenge Objective Structured Abstraction Solving technical contradictions Separation Principles Solving physical contradictions 76 Standard Solutions Solving system problems Biomimicry Finding proven-true solutions directly from nature Lessons Learned Conclusion References

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Standard Solutions System models designed to provide conceptual hints Used for higher-order innovation Problem contains at least one technical or physical contradiction Any problem can be abstracted and modeled

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Standard Solutions Substance field modeling (Su-Field) Represent product or service as a set of objects in a free body diagram Passive, active element and an input F: source of energy S1: passive object S2: active object or tool F S2S1

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Steps Develop a visual model for the system Converge on category that needs the most innovation Create an agreed upon end state Create a specific solution that eliminate contradictions or improve the system’s value quotient

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5 Classes in the Su-Field Model Class 1: Solutions for improving the model with little or no change Class 2: Solutions for improving the system by changing the system Class 3: Solutions for making system transitions Class 4: Solutions for detection and measurement Class 5: Solutions for simplification and improvement

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S2 Class 1 Solutions for improving the model with little or no change Use when your innovative job statement requires an increase or decrease in some expected outcome A system of snow and skis can be improved with wax F: gravity S1: skis S2: snow S3: wax S2S1 Fg S3

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Solutions for improving the system by changing the system Use when your system only needs moderate modifications Cooking with a double boiler prevents the cooking material from burning F: heat S1: food S2: pot S3: big pot with water S2 Class 2 S2S1 S3 Fh

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Solutions for making system transitions Use when developing solution at a high or lower level Hikers can wear Coolmax undergarments to wick away sweat and not get cooled down in cold temperatures Fs: sweat S1: dry clothes S2: person S3: Coolmax fabric Class 3 S2S1 Fs S3

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Solutions for detection and measurement Use when you need to innovate your ability to measure or detect something Add a luminous additive to your radiator to detect leaks Fp: pressure S1: functioning system S2: radiator S3: luminous additive Class 4 S2S1 Fp S3

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Solutions for simplification and improvement Use when you need to make the system simpler A google search bar and url window can be integrated into one window in Google Chrome Fi: information S1: output S2: search window S3: url window Class 5 S2,S3 S1 Fi

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Moment of Truth – Standard Solutions Discussion Example

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Agenda Management Challenge Objective Structured Abstraction Solving technical contradictions Separation Principles Solving physical contradictions 76 Standard Solutions Solving system problems Biomimicry Finding proven-true solutions directly from nature Lessons Learned Conclusion References

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Biomimicry Innovation by learning from nature Nature has created ingenious solutions through evolution and limited resources Similar goals: optimal results with minimal input and minimal use of resources

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Biomimicry Chances are that nature has solved your problem 5 steps towards Step 1: Change perspective Step 2: Explore existing knowledge Step 3: Plan a field trip Step 4: Observe and learn Step 5: Document

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Step 1 – Change your Perspective Ask yourself: what would nature do? Follow guiding principles Nature runs on sunlight Nature uses only the required energy Nature fits form to function Nature recycles everything Nature rewards cooperation Nature banks on diversity Nature demands local expertise Nature curbs excesses from within

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Step 2 – Explore Existing Knowledge Rich body of literature Collaborate with experts Find information online

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Step 3 – Plan a Field Trip Inspect nature during a field trip Book a “working vacation” for taxation advantage Look where the parameters are the same: dry habitat, low sunlight Observe under a microscope

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Step 4 – Observe and Learn Nature’s solution are often non-obvious and intricate Look for metaphors: Bird man and flying squirrel Identify anti-solutions: how would nature not solve the problem? Consider extremes: water repelling vs. water attracting Examine interactions: hybrid vehicles with regenerative braking

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Step 4 – Observe and Learn More metaphors: Termite nest and skyscraper

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Step 5 – Document Solution Ideas Document and find research on the specific species Find a few solutions to an existing problem

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Moment of Truth – Biomimicry Discussion What do you do where you can observe nature? Example What technology is based on biomimicry?

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Agenda Management Challenge Objective Structured Abstraction Solving technical contradictions Separation Principles Solving physical contradictions 76 Standard Solutions Solving system problems Biomimicry Finding proven-true solutions directly from nature Lessons Learned Conclusion References

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Lessons Learned Structured Abstraction allows for proven principles to be applied to technical contradiction Separation Principles allows physical contradictions to be solved Su-Field allows for a system to be modeled in an abstract way and thereby can be solved Biomimicry is a resource for proven-true solutions

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Conclusion Learn the 40 Inventive Principles and associate solutions Model your problem as simple entities using the Su-Field method Watch more Discovery channel, observe nature

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References Domb, E., “The 39 features of Altshuller’s Contradiction Matrix,” The TRIZ Journal, Nov 1998 Rea, K.C., TRIZ and software 40 principles analogies, Part 1 & 2, The TRIZ Journal, Sep 2001, Nov 2001 Innovator’s Toolkit,

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