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HUI-JU HSU DEPARTMENT OF TAIWAN CULTURE, LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE NATIONAL TAIWAN NORMAL UNIVERSITY NOV. 09, 2011 Ch.9 Taiwan Southern Min – its Formation.

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Presentation on theme: "HUI-JU HSU DEPARTMENT OF TAIWAN CULTURE, LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE NATIONAL TAIWAN NORMAL UNIVERSITY NOV. 09, 2011 Ch.9 Taiwan Southern Min – its Formation."— Presentation transcript:

1 HUI-JU HSU DEPARTMENT OF TAIWAN CULTURE, LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE NATIONAL TAIWAN NORMAL UNIVERSITY NOV. 09, 2011 Ch.9 Taiwan Southern Min – its Formation and the Ongoing Change 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0 License of “BY-NC-SA”.

2 IN THIS TALK Background Southern Min -- the complicated tone system and tone sandhi rules The Formation of Taiwan Southern Min -- contact between Southern Min dialects -- contact with other languages in Taiwan The Ongoing Change of Taiwan Southern Min

3 BACKGROUND Southern Min, Mandarin – the two major languages in Taiwan Southern Min (Taiwanese, Tai-gi 台語, Holo 河洛, 福佬, Hokkien ) – demographically predominant (about 75% of the population) Mandarin – politically predominant mutually un intelligible!

4 MANDARIN AND MIN -- NOT MUTUALLY INTELLIGIBLE Wiki Wu Yue (original); Gohu1er (SVG) Mandarin Min

5 MAJOR LANGUAGES IN TAIWAN AT DIFFERENT PERIODS (THE BOLD PRINT INDICATES THE NEWLY ARRIVED LANGUAGES IN THAT PERIOD.) NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

6 Southern Min Southern Min Waishengren Language Various  Mandarin Immigration time 17 th -19 th centurymainly Population * (% of Taiwan) 73% 13% Immigration Type voluntary; economically driven, involuntary; politically driven * At the time after World War II when Mandarin was officially introduced into Taiwan. The language-ethnic mapping (eg. Waishengren-Mandarin, Southern Min-Southern Min) has been disrupted mainly due to the Mandarin-only policy. NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

7 TONE Tone: “A pitch that conveys part of the meaning of a word.” Ladefoged, Peter A Course in Phonetics, 5 th ed.

8 MANDARIN TONES ma1 -- mother ma2 – hemp ma3 – a horse ma4 – to scold Wiki Everlong

9 SOUTHERN MIN TONES T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T7 T8 checked tone (entering tone): performed as a short syllable checked tone (entering tone): performed as a short syllable Adapted from Wiki Herr Klugbeisser

10 TONE SANDHI (IN the change of tone that occurs in some languages when different tones come together in a word or phrase (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tone_sandhi)

11 TONE SANDHI Mandarin Tone Sandhi : T3+T3  T2+T3 eg. 雨 (yu3) 傘 (san3)  雨傘 (yu2san3) an umbrella eg. 老 (lao3) 闆 (ban3)  老闆 (lao2ban3) the store owner

12 SOUTHERN MIN TONE SANDHI 1. regular tone sandhi ( 一般變調 ) -- 舒聲調 (for non checked syllable) -- 入聲調 (for checked syllable) 2. special tone sandhi ( 特殊變調 ) Only regular tone sandhi will be introduced in this presentation.

13 Wiki user: A-cai

14 THE TONE SANDHI RULES IN SOUTHERN MIN 水準 準備保管 管理山頂 頂面水準 準備保管 管理山頂 頂面 計算 算命習慣 慣勢烏暗 暗頓計算 算命習慣 慣勢烏暗 暗頓 聲音 音響黃金 金牌西餐 餐廳聲音 音響黃金 金牌西餐 餐廳 雞卵 卵仁接近 近視學問 問題雞卵 卵仁接近 近視學問 問題 第 1 聲 高平調 [33] 第 5 聲 升調 [13] 第 7 聲 中平調 [22] 第 3 聲 低平調 [11] 第 2 聲 高降調 [31] 海口腔 高升調 [23] 偏泉腔 台南 南投善良 良心精神 神明台南 南投善良 良心精神 神明 NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

15 THE FORMATION OF TAIWAN SOUTHERN MIN Two major mechanisms -- contact between the dialects of Southern Min -- contact with other languages, both local and foreign ones, in Taiwan

16 Southern Min: the language spoken in the southern part of Min( 閩, or 福建 Fujian) Province The two major SM dialects to Taiwan: Tsaun-tsiu ( 泉州 ) and Tsiang-tsiu ( 漳州 ) dialect Adapted from Wiki Wyunhe Tsuan-tsiu Tsiang Taiwan Adapted from Wiki Wyunhe

17 Orange: Tsuan-tsiu ( 泉州 ) dialect Yellow: Tsiang-tsiu ( 漳州 ) dialect note: blue– Hakka ( 客家 ) 台灣言語分布圖:小川尚義, 《日台大辭典》附錄。 Published by 台灣總督府, 1907 。

18 SOME EXAMPLES OF THE TSAUN/TSIANG ( 泉 / 漳 ) DIALECTAL DIFFERENCE NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

19 Tsiang-tsiu ( 漳州 ) Southern Min/ Tsuan-tsiu ( 泉州 ) Southern Min pro-Tsiang Southern Min/ pro-Tsuan Southern Min (neither “pure” Tsiang, nor “pure” Tsuan dialects maintained in Taiwan)

20 LANGUAGE MAP OF TAIWAN, 2008 Pro-Tsuan ( 泉州 ); Pro-Tsiang ( 漳州 ), the mixture (based on Pro- Tsiang) 台灣語言方言分佈圖:洪惟仁, 〈台北地區閩南語的方言類型與方言分區〉, 《台灣語文研究》 3: , 2009 。

21 SOME EXAMPLES* Taipei SM dialect – pro Tsuan-tsiuYi-lan SM dialect – pro Tsiang-tsiu Subtle variations may exist within each dialect though not discussed in a intro-level talk. NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

22 THE FORMATION OF TAIWAN SOUTHERN MIN Two major mechanisms -- contact between the dialects of Southern Min -- contact with other languages, both local (Austronesian) and foreign ones, in Taiwan

23 THE CONTACT BETWEEN SOUTHERN MIN AND OTHER LANGUAGE IN TAIWAN Languages other than Southern Min in Taiwan: -- Austronesian languages (the aboriginal languages) -- Spanish (mainly in northern Taiwan) ( ) -- Dutch (mainly in Tainan) ( ) -- Japanese ( )

24 SOME LOANWORDS IN TAIWAN SOUTHERN MIN NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

25 THE ONGOING CHANGE OF TAIWAN SOUTHERN MIN -- MANDARIN INFLUENCE AT PHONOLOGICAL, LEXICAL, AND SYNTACTIC LEVELS

26 Tsiang-tsiu/ Tsuan-tsiu levelling  stablized TSM TSM suppressed new Taiwan Southern Min : Mandarin the exclusively promoted language; TSM suppressed “Pure” and std. Mandarin highly encouraged. Contact between TSM and Mandarin, though not avoidable, not encouraged. Switching between or mix of these two languages being stigmatized. Mandarin loanwords into TSM > the other way around NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

27 BACKGROUND OF TSM ONGOING CHANGE The Mandarin only movement leads to a language shift from Taiwan Southern Min (and other local languages) to Mandarin. -- Mandarin replaces Southern Min (and other local languages) in most domains in Taiwan. -- Taiwanese people gradually loss their Southern Min ability; many young people become semi-speakers of Southern Min or even Mandarin monolingual.

28 In the 1990s, encouraged by the democratization, Taiwan Southern Min, the ever suppressed predominant local language began to be revitalized.

29 Revitalized Taiwan Southern Min  New TSM 新台語 (note: my wording!!)

30 New TSM – Mandarin influenced (1)Phonological level (2)Lexical level (3)Syntactic level

31 DATA The Taiwan Southern Min data from Mandarin-Southern Min Bilingual Spontaneous Monologue Corpus 18 informants -- self-claimed Mandarin-Taiwan Southern Min bilinguals -- two age groups 10 old: born (50-65yrs old when recorded) 8 young: born (20-35yrs old when recorded)

32 1.PHONONOGICAL LEVEL I. word SMMandarin new SM 環 ( “ surrounding ” ) [k h uan][huan] 概 ( “ general ” ) [k h ai][kai] 航 ( “ cruising ” ) [p h a ŋ ][haŋ][haŋ][haŋ][haŋ] 標 (“a label”) [p h iao][piao] NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

33 1.PHONOLOGICAL LEVEL II. Taiwanese-Mandarin consonant gap was nearly leveled; new Taiwan Southern Min tends to converge to Mandarin system.

34 NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

35 [-p] Ø Ø [-t] [-p,-t,-k] [-k] NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

36

37 2. LEXICAL LEVEL– MANDARIN INFLUENCED Japanese loanwords largely replaced by their Mandarin counterparts TSM-Mandarin competing items  Mandarin wins out.

38 2. LEXICAL LEVEL -- JAPANESE LOANWORDS PHASING OUT old SM (in Tai-lo) (translation) Japanese (in Japanese Romanization) Mandarin (in pinyin) new SM (in Tai-lo) ai satsu (to greet) あいさつ 挨 拶 aisatsu 打 招 呼 da zhao hu 打 招 呼 pha tsio ho thakhusi (a taxi) タクシー takushi 計 程 車 ji cheng che 計 程 車 ke ting tshia basu (a bus) バス basu 公 車 gong che 公 車 gong tshia ootoobai (a motorcycle) オードバイ otobai 機 車 ji che 機 車 ki tshia tsui to tsui 水 道 水 (tap water) すいどうすい 水 道 水 suidousui 自 來 水 zi lai shuei 自 來 水 tsu lai tsui lip inn 入 院 (hospitalization) にゅういん 入 院 nyuin 住 院 zhu yuan 住 院 tua inn NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

39 2. LEXICAL LEVEL -- TRADITIONAL SM TERM WEAKENING

40 Traditional Southern Min (in Tai-lo )— 2 types of Q patterns (1) kam-question – intra-sentential Q marker 這 kam 是 你 的 ? tse kam si li e this Q yours (2) sioh -question – sentential final Q marker “ sioh” 這 是 你 的 sioh? tse si li e sioh this is yours Q (sioh) Mandarin (in pinyin ) – Sentential final Q marker “ ma” 這 是 你 的 嗎 ? zhe shi ni de ma this is yours Q ( ma )? 3. SYNTACTIC LEVEL -- MANDARIN INFLUENCED – I. New TSM 這 是 你 的 嗎 ? tse si li e ma this is yours Q(ma) -- only the sentential final Q marker pattern left -- the Q marker sioh replaced by Mandarin counterpart ma

41 ONE MORE EXAMPLE “I could not find you”. Tradiational SM (in Tai-lo ) 我 找 你 無。 ( gua tshe li bo.) I find you Neg Mandarin (in Pinyin) 我 找 不 到 你 ! (wuo zhao bu dao ni.) I find NEG Com. You New TSM (in Tai-lo) 我 找 無 你。 (gua tshe bo li.) I find NEG you.

42 Following are some items with their traditional SM pronunciation. Please try to predict the new pronunciation of them in the future.

43 Traditional Southern MinNew TSM 研 (“research”) gen ? 心 (“heart”) sim ? 合 (“to close”) hap ? 立 (“to stand”) lip ? NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

44 Traditional Southern MinNew TSM (predicted) 研 (“research”) genen, ken, ien… 心 (“heart”) simsin, sing… 合 (“to close”) hapha, hak, hat… 立 (“to stand”) liplik, li, lit… NTNU Hui-ju Hsu

45 Thank you!!

46 COPYRIGHT DECLARATION WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki Wu Yue (original); Gohu1er (SVG) 2011/11/16 visited Wiki Everlong 2011/11/16 visited Wiki Herr Klugbeisser 2011/11/16 visited Wiki user: A-cai 2011/11/16 visited

47 COPYRIGHT DECLARATION WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki Wyunhe _English_version.svg 2011/11/16 visited Adapted from Wiki Wyunhe _English_version.svg 2011/11/16 visited 台灣言語分布圖:小川尚義《日台大辭典》附錄。 Published by 台灣總督府, 1907 。 台灣語言方言分佈圖:洪惟仁《台北地區閩南語的方言 類型與方言分區》 p.54 , from and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW

48 COPYRIGHT DECLARATION WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.5, 6, 14, 18, 21, 24, 26, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38, 43, 44 NTNU Hui-ju Hsu 繪製 (2011) p.7 Ladefoged, Peter A Course in Phonetics, 5th ed. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW


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