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Medical University of Sofia, Faculty of Medicine Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Thyroid and antithyroid drugs © Assoc. Prof. Iv. Lambev, PhD.

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Presentation on theme: "Medical University of Sofia, Faculty of Medicine Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Thyroid and antithyroid drugs © Assoc. Prof. Iv. Lambev, PhD."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Medical University of Sofia, Faculty of Medicine Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Thyroid and antithyroid drugs © Assoc. Prof. Iv. Lambev, PhD

3 Thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodthyronine (T3) THYROID DRUGS THYROID DRUGS

4 T3 and T4 are synthesized in the thyroid gland. Inorganic iodine is trapped with great avidity by the gland, oxidized and attached to tyro- sine. Combination of mono- and/or- di-iodinated tyrosine forms T3 and T4. The thyroxine peroxidase is im- portant both in the initial oxidation and the final combination steps.

5 Mono-iodtyrosine (MIT) Tyrosine Di-iodtyrosine (DIT) Inorganic iodine Thyroxine peroxidase Inorganic iodine

6 MIT + DIT DIT + DIT T3 T4 Thyreoglobulin

7 Tyrosine Di-iodtyrosine

8 T4 = L-Thyroxine

9 Synthesis and release of T3 and T4 are controlled by the anterior pitu- itary hormone, thyrotrophin (TSH - thyroid-stimulating hormone). Its secretion is controlled by the hypo- thalamic thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) and somatostatin. Circulating T3 and T4 exert a nega- tive feedback on the TSH and TRH.

10 Adenohypophysis Glandula Thyreoidea TSH Hypothalamus TRHSomatostatin (+)  (+)  p l a s m a T3< I> IT4

11 Regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis

12 Worldwide iodine nutrition

13 80 mcg T4 40 mcg T3 200 mcg I 24 hrs:

14 Circulating thyroid hormones are highly protein-bound to TBG (thyroxine-binding globulin). Less than 0.1% from T4 is free. Only the free fraction can bind to specific cell receptors.

15 Plasma T4: 95%T3: 5% Thyroxine-binding globulin 99.91–99.97%

16 AGENTS INLFUENCING PROTEIN- BOUND OF L-THYROXINE (T4) AGENTS INLFUENCING PROTEIN- BOUND OF L-THYROXINE (T4) INCREASE estrogens methadone heroin clofibrate tamoxifen DECREASE glucocorticoids aspirin phenytoin carbamazepine furosemide

17 T3 is much more biologically active than T4. The plasma half-life of T3 is 36 h. T4 has t 1/2 168 h. After entering into cells T4 converts into T3 which binds to receptor protein and inte- racts with DNA in the cell nucleus, causing the synthesis of new messen- ger RNA and hence of new proteins.

18 The main effects of T3 and T4: Stimulating of metabolism (which resulting in a raised basal meta- bolic rate). Promotion of normal growth and maturation, particularly of the CNS and skeleton. Sensitization to the effects of cate- cholamines (DA, NA, Adrenaline).

19 Intracellular (nuclear) steroid/thyroid receptors Effector Coupling Time scale Examples gene transcription via DNA hours steroid receptors thyroid receptors vitamin D receptors

20 T3&T4 – indications: hypothyroidism T3 is reserved for patients with myxoedemic coma.

21 Facial appearance in hypothyroidism

22 Jodthyrox  (T4 + < I) Levothyroxine  (T4) - tabl. 25 mcg Liothyronin  (T3) Thyreoidea siccata  Thyrotrophin (TSH)

23 They are used to treat hyperthyroidism. Thioureas agents Beta-blockers Radioactive iodnie ( 131 I) ANTITHYROID DRUGS ANTITHYROID DRUGS

24 Thioureas agents inhibit thyroxine peroxidase, and therefore synthesis of T3 and T4. Because of long half-life of T4, changes in rate synthesis takes several weeks to low circu- lating concentrations to normal.

25 Carbimazole (prodrug) Thiamazole (Methimazole – USAN) Propylthiouracil Thiamazole - tabl. 5 mg

26 Thioureas – adverse effects Nausea, taste disturbance Agranulocytosis Placental transfer and secretion in breast milk can produce neo- natal hypothyroidism (small doses are probably safe).

27 Beta-blockers have imme- diate symptomatic effect on palpitation and tremor but do not alter the rate of T3 & T4 synthesis. 131 I (t 1/2 8 days) is used to treat multinodular toxic goiters. It is taken up by the abnormal tissue.

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