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IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANETARY PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE RPWI EXPERIMENT ONBOARD THE JUICE SPACECRAFT I. Kolmasova 1, O. Santolik 1,2, J. Soucek 1,

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Presentation on theme: "IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANETARY PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE RPWI EXPERIMENT ONBOARD THE JUICE SPACECRAFT I. Kolmasova 1, O. Santolik 1,2, J. Soucek 1,"— Presentation transcript:

1 IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANETARY PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE RPWI EXPERIMENT ONBOARD THE JUICE SPACECRAFT I. Kolmasova 1, O. Santolik 1,2, J. Soucek 1, J.-E. Wahlund 3, J. Bergmann 3 1 Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, Prague, Czech Republic, 2 Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic 3 Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013

2 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 MOTIVATION UN Space Treaty of 1967 Article IX States Parties to the Treaty shall pursue studies of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contamination and also adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extraterrestrial matter, and where necessary, shall adopt appropriate measures for this purpose.

3 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 MOTIVATION  COSPAR (Commitee on Space Research) is responsible for the formulation of the the planetary protection rules  any mission to planetary bodies must follow guidelines for protection of terrestrial and extraterrestrial biosphere and for the preservation of the integrity of sites for future exploration studies  planetary protection and organic contamination control are important to mission planning, science, and design of hardware systems

4 A probability of introducing 1 viable terrestrial organism should be less than (for Ganymede)‏ The solar system bodies are divided in 5 categories according to the body structure and mission type (flyby, orbiter, lander). The categorization is supported by an analysis of the “remote” potential for contamination of the liquid- water environments that may exist beneath their surfaces. International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES CATEGORIZATION

5 CATEGORY SPECIFIC LISTING Category I: Flyby, Orbiter, Lander: Undifferentiated, metamorphosed asteroids Category II: Flyby, Orbiter, Lander: Venus; Moon (with organic inventory); Comets; Carbonaceous Chondrite Asteroids; Jupiter; Saturn; Uranus; Neptune; Ganymede; Titan; Triton; Pluto/Charon; Ceres; Kuiper-Belt Objects > 1/2 the size of Pluto; Kuiper-Belt Objects < 1/2 the size of Pluto Category III: Flyby, Orbiters: Mars; Europa; Enceladus Category IV: Lander Missions: Mars; Europa Category V: Any Earth-return mission International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013

6 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 PLANETARY PROTECTION ACTIVITIES  Probability of impact and survival factors analysis  Spore Burden analysis Spores - a special dormant state of some bacteria Burden - in PP practice, the part of sampled microbes that survive a heat shock (80°C, 20 min)  Probability of Contamination  Contamination Control  Recontamination Prevention

7 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 PROBABILITY OF IMPACT  expected maximum probability of accidental impact on Europa, Titan, Ganymede, Callisto and Enceladus Flyby and Orbiter spacecraft value: Launch vehicle (or part thereof) value:  the impact analysis includes failure modes, which is needed for the assessment of transfer of spores to the surface

8 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 SURVIVAL FACTOR ANALYSIS The number of microbes of type X that could survive on an icy body is based on the initial contamination level [N X0 ] and various survival factors: N XS = N X0 xF1x F2x F3x F4 xF5 xF6 xF7 F1—Total number of cells relative to assayed cells (N X0 )‏ F2—Bioburden reduction survival fraction, when applied F3—Cruise survival fraction F4—Radiation survival fraction F5—Probability of impacting a protected body, including spacecraft failure modes F6—Probability that an organism survives impact F7—Burial survival fraction N XS should be less than 10 -4

9 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 HOW TO ACHIEVE ACCEPTABLE CONTAMINATION (N x0 )  Surfaces must tolerate sampling with damp swabs  Areas that cannot be cleaned/assayed must be identified  Surfaces should be smooth, spores like rough surfaces  Components and materials should tolerate temperatures used for dry heat microbial reduction (110°C to 125°C)‏  Record keeping (assay results, hardware treatment history, manipulation with hardware after collection of assays or microbial reduction process)‏  All of the above apply also to hardware from outside sources

10 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 CONTAMINATION CONTROL Class 10 5 (ISO class 8) or better for payload assembly

11 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 RECONTAMINATION PREVENTION  good cleanroom practices minimize recontamination  use of remove-before-flight covers  proper storage  transport in clean boxes

12 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 ECSS-Q-ST-70-55C Microbial examination of flight hardware and cleanrooms Swab assay 1 ‏ for aerobic mesophilic heat tolerant spores and vegetative bacteria

13 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 ECSS-Q-ST-70-55C Microbial examination of flight hardware and cleanrooms Swab assay 2 for aerobic mesophilic bacteria

14 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 RPWI (RADIO & PLASMA WAVES IINVESTIGATION)  Experiment selected for the JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer) spacecraft  RPWI is a highly integrated instrument package that provides a set of plasma and fields measurements  The key planetary protection requirements for the ESA JUICE mission are: 1) the probability of impact on Europa should be evaluated and strictly controlled 2) the chance for contamination of Ganymede’s putative ocean should be negligible.

15 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 DESIGN RULES FOR RPWI TO FULFILL PLANETARY PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS  consider parts qualifications and manufacturing processes when selecting components; all components and materials should survive 125°C when inactive  take into account the advantage of vacuum and radiation conditions after launch  assess temperature/time profiles of manufacturing processes, especially for items behind radiation shielding  design for tolerance to assays, accountable surfaces must tolerate sampling with damp swabs or wipes

16 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013  identify areas that cannot be cleaned/assayed  IPA or ethanol are acceptable for passive contamination control  assembly and test of flight hardware in ISO 8 clean room conditions  follow ECSS-Q-ST-70-55C (microbial examination of flight hardware and cleanrooms) and ECSS-Q-ST-70-58C (bioburden control of cleanrooms)‏  transport in clean boxes to prevent recontamination DESIGN RULES FOR RPWI TO FULFILL PLANETARY PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

17 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments” IKI, Moscow, Russia, 7 March 2013 Thank you for our attention! Спосибо за Ваше внимание!


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