Presentation on theme: "5.3 Approaches to Pollution Management. Assessment Statements 5.3.1 Outline approaches to pollution management with respect to figure 5. 5.3.2 Discuss."— Presentation transcript:
Assessment Statements 5.3.1 Outline approaches to pollution management with respect to figure 5. 5.3.2 Discuss the human factors that affect the approaches to pollution management. 5.3.3 Evaluate the costs and benefits to society of the World Health Organization’s ban on the use of the pesticide DDT.
5.3.1 Three-Level Model Replace ● Alternatives to the pollutant o Biodegradable packaging o New refrigerants o Hybrid vehicles ● Alternative choices in lifestyle o Paper or plastic o Water bottles ● Reduce, reuse, recycle o Ordered according to what is best o Electronics http://b2bbusinessnews.files.wordpr ess.com/2011/11/biodegradable- plastic.jpeg http://inhabitat.com/compostable- packaging-test-bambu-plates- breakdown/
5.3.1 Three-Level Model Regulate ● Setting/imposing standards o EPA (US) o UNEP o Ministry of Environmental Protection (China) ● Extraction techniques o “Clean coal” o Sequestration o Catalytic converter http://www.csdimarioenvironmental.com/resources/Environmental_Law_7_09.j pg.opt423x423o0,0s423x423.jpg
5.3.1 Three-Level Model Restore (most expensive) ● Extracting pollutant from ecosystem ● US Superfund ● Chernobyl, Ukraine ● Replanting/restocking ecosystem ● Chuquicamata, Chile ● Fresh Kills Landfill → Freshkills Park (NY, USA) http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/gif/about/prkillsco ntextmap.jpg
5.3.2 Human Factors “It is unrealistic to expect human activities to cease to pollute the environment.” Davis & Nagle Economic systems Production requires raw materials Cultural values May not be willing to change May not know how to change Political systems Jobs or environment?
5.3.3 DDT & the WHO ● Dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane ● Used extensively during WWII to control lice and mosquitoes ● Insecticide in agriculture ● 1955 – WHO began program to eradicate malaria (with DDT) o Resistance evolved after 6 years Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Turkey, central America, DDT has lost its effectiveness o 40,000 tons used worldwide each year (1950-1980) http://www.icangarden.ca/images/Jpgs/ART/Workersbeingspr ayedDDT.jpg
5.3.3 DDT ● 4-5000 tons produced each year o India, China, North Korea o India largest consumer o Applied to inside of homes Inside Residual Spraying (IRS) Cheap, persistent, and works well ● Malaria kills 2.7 million people/year o Mostly children under 5 o Infects 300-500 million/year o Disease of the “poor” No research funding
5.3.3 DDT Issues POP (persistent organic pollutant) Absorbed by soils Half-life (22 days → 30 yrs) Hydrophobic (not water soluble) Soluble in lipids (fats) Breaks down into DDE and DDD DDE – Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene Reproductive toxicants for birds Neurotoxic DDD – Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane Carcinogenic Skin irritant http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~lw494/clova_images/ddt_eggs.jpghttp://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~lw494/clova_images/ddt_eggs.jpg http://arcticportal.org/ima ges/stories/Logo_Organi zation/pops_migration.gi f
5.3.3 DDT Silent Spring 1962 -Rachel Carson – American biologist Widespread spraying killing wildlife Cancer in humans Biomagnifies and bioaccumulates Agricultural use banned in 1970’s and 1980’s (though not as a vector control) First banned in Hungary in 1968 Norway/Sweden 1970, US 1972, UK 1984 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ commons/thumb/f/f4/Rachel- Carson.jpg/300px-Rachel-Carson.jpg