Sen, Lalita Texas Southern University, Houston, TX, US Majumdar, Sarmistha Rina Texas Southern University, Houston, TX, US
United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities Introduced concepts of inclusivity for the disabled Emphasized access to education, employment, recreation using accessible transportation to access schools/ educational institutions access employment access to recreation facilities
Asian Countries who Signed and Ratified the UNCRPD CountriesConvention Signature Convention Ratification Bangladesh5/ /2007 China3/2007 8/2008 India3/ /2007 Indonesia3/ /2011 Laos1/2008 9/2009 Maldives10/2007 4/2010 Nepal1/2008 5/2010 Pakistan 9/2008 7/2011 Republic of Korea 3/200712/2008
Countries Selected for Focused Assessment of Accessible Transportation South Korea India Indonesia India Indonesia Nepal Pakistan Nepal Pakistan
South Korea Seoul-capital city million people out of the 50 million in the country Access for Seniors and the disabled is somewhat limited Braille signage at ticket counters, subway station entrances, and voice guide units to guide the blind to the platform 50% of the buses are being made accessible for those with any mobility limitation Access for the blind is being built and made available in 20 bus stations, with special pedestrian blocks in some subway platforms, & sidewalks.
Public Transport 05.jpg
Accessible Walkway Design –South Korea -sidewalks-in-south-korea.html
South Korea……………Summary Level of industrialization similar to Western European countries with well developed infra structure and service industry Current Taxi for the disabled and free shuttle services serving specific communities will be integrated into one seamless accessible system. Obstacle-free Zones are also planned in areas where the elderly and the disabled frequent such as welfare centers and hospitals Its ability to meet the UNCRPD mandate is greater than any of the other remaining Asian countries.
India It had passed the PWD Act in 1995 prior to signing and ratifying UNCRPD (without any action) All major cities have accessible aircraft embarking / disembarking methods serving all major airports where there are large volume of tourists There are BRT corridors in Ahmedabad and Delhi Delhi has Low floor buses and total accessible airport system, and metro rail system Overhead bridges have been built to accommodate safe crossing across major thoroughfare but often are not accessible
India ………………………….Summary Indian Railways as the largest transport System, is yet to be made accessible. Access to trains or the toilets are not designed to accommodate the disabled. Railway platforms in many cities are still not accessible While many internationally known tourist sites have been made accessible through NGOs or ASI, many local sites of interest are not accessible as yet. Lack of integration of engineering and planning activities. Accessible features need to meet UNCRPD’s mandates for not just the major cities, or tourist centers, all cities, and smaller towns through out the country
Indonesia Jakarta Transportation Council cites TransJakarta bus network, with its series of ramps leading to each shelter, as a step in the right direction The disabled are unable to use the public trains in Central Jakarta, without help from their friends, as there are no ramps, elevators, signs in Braille, or prominently displayed, or running text for the deaf. The “Barrier-Free Movement,” has earned the support of the Pedestrian Coalition, which seeks to ensure that pedestrians can walk the city’s streets safely and without hindrance.
Public Transport in Indonesia anSudirman.jpg (BRT system) Mini Bus in Jakarta ndonesia%20selects%203/Java/Becak.gif
Electric Train in Java, Indonesia Gambir Station elevated railway platform, Central Jakarta, Indonesia. Below, on the left is Argo train that connect Jakarta with other cities in on the far center is the KRL Commuter linking Jakarta with suburb towns around Jakarta. Java island. Note the warning blocks and platform markings for the visually impaired Argo train in Gambir Station, Jakarta
Air and Water Travel Makassar_airport1.jpg e:Klotok_with_passengers.jpg
Indonesia…......Summary “UNCRPD requires states to do several things, including forming a national mechanism to monitor and protect the implementation of the convention”..Enny Suprapto a former member of the National Commission on Human Rights (Komnas HAM) UNCRPD also requires “States that had ratified it to appoint a body in the government to implement the convention” To date implementation of the UNCRPD is not uppermost in the minds of the candidates running for office, for next year.
Nepal Although a signatory and has ratified UNCRPD, it has no accessible transportation features, other than the boarding and disembarking ramps at the airport at Kathmandu To control road accidents, it has started fining pedestrians who cross the roads without using overhead nearby bridges Rs 50, and keeping them in detention of the Traffic Police for an hour. The buses in Nepal are the primary form of public transportation with a high record of accidents / fatalities, due to terrain, lack of driver training. They are not low floor and inaccessible. There is an inaccessible East-West 59 kilometer narrow gauge rail system from Janakpur, Nepal to Jainagar, in Bihar near the Indian border.
Rail Bridge near Janakpur, Nepal
Rail line from Janakpur, Nepal to Jainagar, Bihar (India ) Rail line from Janakpur, Nepal to Jainagar, Bihar (India ) *http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Nepal_Railway.JPG
Transport Modes in Nepal Around Cities & Country side Transport Modes in Nepal Around Cities & Country side Nepalhttp://www.google.com/search?q=buses+in+nepal&hl=en&prmd=imvns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=QKdDUL- oK4_G6AHRkoDQAg&sqi=2&ved=0CDAQsAQ&biw=1024&bih=639
Market in Bairawala, Nepal
Religious sites in Nepal- Bhaktapur Religious sites in Nepal- Bhaktapur
Clean Energy Vehicles in Nepal Photo at top is the electric trolley bus from Kathmandu to the satellite towns which ceased its operation around November 2008, due to gross mismanagement Safa Tempo’s (electric) in Kathmandu replaced the Vikram tempos on Diesel. There are 700 Safa tempos operating in more than 13 routes in Kathmandu. More than 95 percent of the electricity comes from hydropower, which is undoubtedly a clean source of energy. However accessibility is not a feature introduced into the design.
BRT system in Nepal, via South Korea ? BRT system in Nepal, via South Korea ? Recently, a Korean company was selected to carry out a feasibility study of the much-hyped metro train project in Kathmandu Valley. Around Rs. 70 million is being spent to carry out a study of 75 km of underground and elevated track. Kathmandu has huge potential to introduce BRT system in major truck routes with cleaner vehicle technology—preferably a trolley bus system. Considering the economic and geological condition of Kathmandu Valley, this is best for an affordable and efficient transit system like BRT. The degree of accessibility that may be planned remains unknown
Nepal………………………….Summary The rail system is being considered for expansion, with the ambitious idea of a north-south train linking China to India by rail. Domestic political instability, with a coalition government include the Maoists, combined with the geopolitical influence of both China to the north and India to the south, have delayed changes to address UNCRPD Little or no information is available on existing/ planned implementations under UNCRPD mandates if any There are efforts to collaborate with other countries such as South Korea to bring about newer technologies to the pubic transport area, but does not appear to include UNCRPD mandates.
IMPLEMENTING THE UNCRPD Based on available data, it is clear that implementation of the mandates of the UNCRPD has occurred in various levels at each of the five Asian countries review Integrated accessible system has not occurred any where, although South Korea is perhaps closest to achieving this Monitoring is still essential Management of the entire travel chain to ensure accessibility has not happened as yet and will take time
Proposed Connection Between Research and Accessibility Policy in India Advisory Committees at all levels( City, towns, villages, panchayats etc) National Access Board National Integrated Inter-Modal Transport Agency National Research Council University Grants Commission National Transport Safety Urban Transport Marine Transport Railways Highways State Transport Agency Universities/ Research Institutes/Consultants Airport/Air Transport
Concerns on Accessibility Issues A need to appoint for monitoring by a volunteer group in each country Need for accountability on schedule for implementing accessible services within reasonable time Need for public input at hearing, discussions, and through websites. Economic value of increased accessibility integrated into the trip chain is essential for full implementation of UNCRPD