2“Americanizing” the War Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and General William Westmoreland, Commander US Forces in South Vietnam believed the US needed to increase its military presence in South Vietnam beyond the role of advisors to the South Vietnamese Armed Forces (ARVN)This called for more troops and airstrikes against targets in North and South Vietnam
3General William Westmoreland Commander US Forces in South Vietnam Robert McNamaraSecretary of Defense
4An American door gunner covering ARVN troops A Green Beret on patrol with ARVN troops
5US Helicopters prepare to transport ARVN troops into battle, 1965
6Rolling ThunderIn March 1965, following a Vietcong attack on US troops at Pleiku, President Johnson ordered the bombing of North VietnamCode named “Operation Rolling Thunder”Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps warplanes attacked strategic targets in North Vietnam and Vietcong strongpoints in South VietnamLasted until November 1968
12Agent OrangeAgent Orange is a chemical used by the U.S. Army in the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971 to remove forest cover, destroy crops, and disrupt agriculture food production. It is called “Agent Orange” because of the orange band that identifies the barrel the chemical came in. There were also Agents Purple, Green, and Pink.
13Agent OrangeThe U.S. military dumped some 20 million gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on about a quarter of former South Vietnam between 1962 and 1971.The defoliant decimated about 5 million acres of forest — roughly the size of Massachusetts — and another 500,000 acres of crops, the report said.
16Agent OrangeThe chemical have been shown to cause serious skin diseases as well as a vast variety of cancers in the lungs, larynx, and prostate. Other effects include cleft palate, mental disabilities, hernias, and extra fingers and toes. The scariest impact is that the disease and deformities caused by the chemical can span across generations.
18The Marines LandOn March 8, 1965, US Marines arrived to defend the airbase at Da Nang. More troops soon followed.By the end of 1965, there were 184,300 US troops in Vietnam636 Americans had been killed in the war to date
19Pictured are Marines from 3rd Battalion, 9th Regiment March 8, The first deployment of U.S. battalion-sized U.S. combat units to VietnamPictured are Marines from 3rd Battalion, 9th Regiment
20The 1st and 3rd Battalions soon followed, bringing the strength of the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade up to 5,000 troops.
21The VietcongThe Vietcong (VC) were South Vietnamese communists fighting for unification with North VietnamThey waged guerilla warfare, dressed as civilians and hid after attacking US troopsThey were supplied by the North Vietnamese by the Ho Chi Minh Trail that went through Laos and CambodiaThe VC were highly motivated and suffered great hardships
28Vietcong & NVA Strategy The VC and NVA knew they could not match US firepowerThey relied on hit-and-run tactics to harass American forcesMany attacks occurred at nightThe goal was to erode American’s will to fight through attrition
29U.S. Troops Fulfill Their Duty Americans served in Vietnam for a variety of reasonMany volunteered to serve their countrySome fought to stop communismSome fought to protect the South VietnameseMany were drafted and had no choice but to serve
30Morale Declines Morale declined for many reasons The majority of troops after 1965 were drafteesLosses continued to mountUS Troops felt the South Vietnamese people were indifferent to their presence and should be defending their own countryA growing anti-war movement at home undermined morale
31Economic Problems at Home Johnson’s Great Society programs were very expensiveThe cost of fighting in Vietnam was also very highMassive government spending had lowered the unemployment rate but inflation was very highThese factors led to increased taxes
32The Anti-War Movement By 1967, opposition to the war was widespread Two camps had emerged, Doves and HawksDoves questioned the war. They included liberal politicians and students who saw the conflict as a localized civil war.Hawks supported Johnson’s war policies. They were mostly conservatives who believed the war was crucial to a U.S. Cold War victory.
3613 of the 58,272 listed on the Wall attended Phillipsburg High School Phillipsburg’s Roll of Honor13 of the 58,272 listed on the Wall attended Phillipsburg High School
37557th Tactical Fighter Squadron USAF MajorBruce Edward LawrencePilot(Phillipsburg, NJ)557th Tactical Fighter SquadronUSAFTour of duty began on November 9,1968KIAJuly 5, 1968Surface-to-Air Missile HitNorth VietnamPHS Class of 1960
38Tour of duty began on April 23, 1967 Silver Star Citation (Posthumous) Staff SergeantTerrance Edward SmithInfantry(Phillipsburg, NJ)25th Infantry DivisionUSATour of duty began on April 23, 1967KIAMarch 24, 1968Enemy ActionTay Ninh ProvinceAttended PHS 1962Silver Star Citation (Posthumous)For Gallantry in Action, Staff Sergeant Smith distinguished himself by heroic actions on March 24, 1968, while serving as a platoon sergeant with Company B, 2nd Battalion, 14 Infantry on a combat operation in the Republic of Vietnam. When his unit was pinned down by intense enemy fire, Sergeant Smith reacted instantly to the situation and led his platoon to protective cover. He repeatedly exposed himself to the enemy fire to direct his men's fire and when a group of his men were trapped by the enemy fire he maneuvered to their position. After maneuvering these men to within 25 meters of the friendly positions, Sergeant Smith was mortally wounded by the intense enemy fire. His valorous actions saved several lives and were of immeasurable value to the successful completion of the mission.
393rd Battalion 7th Marine Regiment USMC Private First ClassJames Robert MorrisRifleman(Phillipsburg, NJ)3rd Battalion 7th Marine RegimentUSMCTour of duty began on November 28,1967KIAJanuary 31, 1968Enemy ActionQuang Nam ProvincePHS Class of 1964
40Albert Aleya Outwater Jr Platoon Guide (Phillipsburg, NJ) SergeantAlbert Aleya Outwater JrPlatoon Guide(Phillipsburg, NJ)3rd Battalion 3rd Marine RegimentUSMCTour of duty began on July 17,1967. KIAJuly 21, Enemy ActionQuang Tri ProvincePHS Class of 1964
41Tour of duty began on November 12, 1967 KIA April 2, 1968 CorporalAlbert ShillerRifleman(Alpha, NJ)9th Infantry DivisionUSATour of duty began on November 12, 1967KIAApril 2, 1968Wounds received from enemy booby trapBinh Duong ProvincePHS Class of 1964
42Tour of duty began on July 27, 1966 Non-Hostile Vehicle Accident Specialist 4Daniel John Myers(Stewartsville, NJ)1st infantry DivisionUSATour of duty began on July 27, 1966KIAJanuary 30, 1967Non-Hostile Vehicle AccidentDi An, South VietnamPHS Class of 1965
43Tour of duty began on July 15, 1966 Friendly Fire (Air Strike) Specialist 4Dennis Kline(Phillipsburg, NJ)25th Infantry DivisionUSATour of duty began on July 15, 1966KIAMarch 21, 1967Friendly Fire (Air Strike)Hug Nghia ProvincePHS Class of 1965
44Robert John Marcantoni Rifleman (Phillipsburg, NJ) PrivateRobert John MarcantoniRifleman(Phillipsburg, NJ)3rd Battalion 7th Marine RegimentUSMCTour of duty began on April 23, 1967KIAApril 10, 1968Enemy ActionQuang Nam ProvincePHS Class of 1965
45Warrant Officer 1st Class William M. Konyu Bell UH-1H Helicopter Pilot (Phillipsburg, NJ)101st Airborne DivisionUSAMIAApril 16, 1969Helicopter Crash-Hostile FireQuang Nam ProvincePHS Class of 1965
46Sergeant James L. Suydam (Phillipsburg, NJ) 199th Light Infantry BrigadeUSAMIAOctober 9, 1969Non Hostile Helicopter CrashTay Ninh ProvincePHS Class of 1966
472nd Battalion 1st Marine Regiment Tour of duty began on April 12, 1968 Private First ClassArthur Mortimer RoweRifleman(Phillipsburg, NJ)2nd Battalion 1st Marine RegimentUSMCTour of duty began on April 12, 1968WIA- May 19, 1968DOW- June 1, 1968Enemy ActionKhe SahnAttended PHS 1966
481st Air Cavalry Division Tour of duty began on June 3, 1969 Private First ClassRobert Franklin BaconTrooper(Phillipsburg, NJ)1st Air Cavalry DivisionUSATour of duty began on June 3, 1969KIAJuly 17, 1969Enemy ActionBinh Duong ProvinceAttended PHS 1966
49Armored Vehicle Crewman Tour of duty began on November 9,1968 CorporalJohn Edgar MarasonArmored Vehicle Crewman(Phillipsburg, NJ)173 Airborne BrigadeUSATour of duty began on November 9,1968KIADecember 2, 1968Enemy ActionBinh Dinh ProvincePHS Class of 1967