Learning program: Mechanic – electrician Name of the program: Numerical systems II. class Units of informations Made by: Mgr. Holman Pavel Projekt Anglicky.

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Learning program: Mechanic – electrician Name of the program: Numerical systems II. class Units of informations Made by: Mgr. Holman Pavel Projekt Anglicky v odborných předmětech, CZ.1.07/1.3.09/04.0002 je spolufinancován Evropským sociálním fondem a státním rozpočtem České republiky.

Numerical systems

Information Everything we can catch with our senses we call entries. Information is then that part of entries, which is understandable for the receiver. Information is a general term expressing message content. It decreases vagueness and increases probability of predicting results of a certain event. Examples of information: entries, numbers, symbols, orders, instructions, messages... Information is immaterial, but always relates to some kind of physical action, which carries it. The signal is a carrier of the information (amount of voltage, current, light beam...) It enables acquiring, storing, processing and transmitting the information.

Informatics disciplines · Information theory – cybernetic science focusing on transmitting, coding and measuring the information in complex systems, creator – Claude Elwood Shannon (*1916) · Informatics – focusing on a structure, use and processing of information, based on algebra · Computer technology – sum of methods for working with computational devices (computers, calculators...) · Algorithm development and programming – developing procedures for solving problems by machines, where according to input data the machine provides required output data.. · Software engineering – efficient program creating, organization of development teams...

· Computer graphics – processing of images, structure designs, three- dimensional modeling... · Computer simulation – via mathematic models enables to examine system behavior. · Formal logic, theory of automats and formal languages – mathematical models of computing machines and algorithm record formalization. · Cybernetics, robotics, artificial intelligence – creation of a robot – machine able not only to work, but to simulate human thinking. · Book science – informatics oriented to printed materials. In applied informatics there is often used term information technology (IT). It includes also television, radio, telephone, video, writing and printing books, mail and using bar code in stores.

Units of information The lowest amount of information is a message telling that the certain event happened or not. So it includes two possibilities, which can be recorded as 0 or 1. (computer realizes these states for example by values of the voltage – the higher voltage 1, the lower 0.) This elementary amount of information is called 1 bit and is marked as 1b. Bits are associated into eights – bytes (1B = 8b) - there can be so set 2 8 =256 different lines of nulls and ones. Bigger unit is Kilobyte =1KB = 2 10 = 1024 B =1KB = 2 10 = 1024 B is roughly 1000B (for distinction from precisely 1000 B = 1 kB is used big letter K). Megabyte = 1 MB is 1024 KB and so 1048576 B = 2 20 B. Gigabyte = 1 GB is 1024 MB and so 1073741824 B = 2 30 B. Terabyte = 1 TB is 1024 MB and so 1099511627776 B= 2 40 B.

How many bits are approximately in: Symbol1B Integer4B Text page2 kB Text page in Word 24 kB Small photo (JPG) 100 kB Sound in CD quality 176 kB/s MP3 Sound 16 kB/s Compressed video100–200 kB/s Video in TV quality 20 MB/s Příklady k procvičení: 4096 B = KB 2 40 B = MB 4096 KB = B 2 30 B = KB

Question chart: 1 22 2 3 za 100za 500za 300 ABCD EFGH Prémie 3 3 1 1 The End

Question for 100 What is information?

Question for 100 What is informatics focused on?

Question for 100 How many Bits are in one Byte?

Question for 300 How many Bytes are in one Megabyte?

Question for 300 How many Megabytes are in one Gigabyte?

Question for 300 How many Megabytes are in one Terabyte?

Question for 500 How many Bytes are in one Megabyte?

Question for 500 How many Bytes are in one Gigabyte?

Question for 500 How many Bytes are in one Terabyte?

 Mužík, J. Management ve vzdělávání dospělých. Praha: EUROLEX BOHEMIA, 2000. ISBN 80-7361-269-7.  Operační program Vzdělávání pro konkurenceschopnost, ESF 2007 – 2013.  Dostupné na: http://www.msmt.cz/eu/provadeci-dokument-k-op-vzdelavani-pro- konkurenceschopnosthttp://  MALINA, V. Digitální technika. České Budějovice: KOPP, 1996  KRÝDL, M. Číslicová technika. Dubno, 1999  PODLEŠÁK, J., SKALICKÝ, P. Spínací a číslicová technika. Praha, 1994  PECINA, J. Ing. PaedDr. CSc.; PECINA, P. Mgr. Ph.d. Základy císlicové techniky. Brno, 2007

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