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ANSI X9.119 Part 2: Using Tokenization MethodsTerence Spies, Chair X9F1 Work Group Steve Schmalz, X9F6 Member and X Document Editor . Terence Spies, CTO, Voltage Steve Schmalz, Solution Architect, RSA the Security Division of EMC Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Agenda Introduction – a short history of X9.119 So what is a token?Tokenization use-cases So what is tokenization? The tokenization model Generic attacks on tokenization systems Derived requirements The hardware question A call for help from the community Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
What is X9 and X9 F1, F4 and F6? X9 develops financial industry technical standards and guidelines. X9F is the “Data & Information Security Subcommittee” X9F1 is the working group that deals with “Cryptographic Tools” Terence Spies is the present chair. They plan on developing a standard covering Tokenization Algorithms. X9F4 focuses on “Cryptographic Protocol and Application Security” Jeff Stapleton is the present chair. X9F6 works on “Cardholder Authentication and ICC’s (Integrated Chip Cards)” Scott Spiker is the current chair. X9.119 is being written here. Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
X9.119 X9.119 started as a single document aimed at addressing both encryption and tokenization methods for protecting sensitive payment card data. First real work started in early 2009. Over the next couple of years several issues stalled work on the standard The requirement for strong hardware to implement any cryptographic processes. The definition of tokenization. In early 2012 F6 decided to divide the document into two parts. Part 1 covered encryption and was approved in March of last year after which F6 began work on part 2, tokenization. Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Definition of a Token Token – A surrogate value used in place of an underlying sensitive value (USV) in certain, well defined situations, but not in every way that the USV is used. Tokens have attributes and utility. Token attribute – the structure of the token Token utility – what you can do with the token Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Examples of Tokens PAN Token Comment 13980 826539 1255231poK983HKzns100 Token is composed of alphabetic and numeric characters Token is identical to PAN in structure and character set (LUN check could even hold) T Token is almost identical to PAN except for a character indicating it is a token Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Token Utility X9.119’s concept of utility is similar to PCI’s concept of a high value token. The utility of a token replacing a PAN can run the scale from a simple unique value mapped to the underlying sensitive value to a value that can be used to approve certain financial transactions X9.119 focuses on tokens with minimal utility. Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tokenization Use-CasesMain business drivers from the perspective of why tokenization versus encryption. Reduced auditing costs (reducing PCI auditing scope) Reduced impact on workflow (a PAN token does not require a new database schema) Use of tokenization in payment processing At the Acquirer At the Merchant Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
A Simple Payment Processing WorkflowMerchant Acquirer P R O V I D E I S U E R POS S W I T C H Vertical Specific Middleware Token Vertical Specific Middleware Vertical Specific Middleware POS Token TC Token Token DB Tokenization Service DB DB Token Token Token Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Questions for You, Our AudienceDo you use tokenization in your organization? If so do you know what motivated you to adopt this technology? If you use tokenization, do you use it internally or as a service from an Acquirer? Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Encryption vs TokenizationArchitecturally, Encryption is typically used between two entities. Tokenization is used for persistently stored values. One common design pattern: encryption between the POS and host, with a token emitted from host in response. Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Tokenization ModelTokenization Service Access Control Rules Tokenization Algorithm Secret Data Random Mapper Token USV* Application Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Generic Attacks Tokenization Service Token USV Application Attack 2:Access Control Rules Tokenization Algorithm Secret Data Random Mapper Token USV Application Attack 1: Guess Secret Data Attack 2: Predict Random Mapping Attack 3a: Subvert Access Control Rules Attack 4a: Subvert Isolation of Tokenization System Attack 5: Subvert Secure Communication Link Attack 4b: Attack 3b: Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Broad Security RequirementsAttacks 1 and 2 The secret data must contain the appropriate amount of entropy. Standards must exist covering the random mapping function and overall algorithm used to generate the tokens. Attack 3 The tokenization service must implement some form of access control to insure that only authorized processes have access. The application must know which tokenization services to trust. Logging of all access to the tokenization service must occur and mechanisms to effectively use this information be in place. Attack 5 Access by applications to tokenization services must be over a secure channel that protects the privacy and integrity of the tokens and USVs as well as authenticating both sides of the communications. Mutually authenticated TLS using standards based cipher-suites will probably be the most common mechanism used but other protocols will be allowed. Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Secure Isolation of the Tokenization SystemArchitecturally, Encryption is typically used between two entities. Tokenization is used for persistently stored values. One common design pattern: encryption between the POS and host, with a token emitted from host in response. Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Levels of Isolation Tokenization service and application live in the same computing environment Hardware enforced process isolation – example: Tokenization service and clients run on same machine but as separate operating system services. Hardware enforced environment isolation – example: tokenization service and application run on different virtual machines. Physical process separation – example: IBM mainframe security processors. Tokenization service and application live on separate physical systems Physical system isolation Limited functionality physical system isolation (SCD) Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Hardware Question Historically, isolation has happened at many points, and dedicated hardware is the right answer. It is probably impractical to run the some, and in some cases any, of the tokenization system components on an SCD. F6 is looking at ways to address this. Get help from SCD vendors to see if their product set can be modified to address any performance issues More fully investigate various forms of process isolation available on modern OSes and processors. Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
A Call for Help If you would like to participate in this standards process please contact: Steve Schmalz – , Terence Spies – Janet Bush – Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Questions? Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, IncCopyright © 2013 Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc. All rights reserved.
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