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Standards for Digital Archives Presenter: Mahnaz Ghaznavi Liz Bishoff June 5, 2014 ©2014 Society of American Archivists.

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Presentation on theme: "Standards for Digital Archives Presenter: Mahnaz Ghaznavi Liz Bishoff June 5, 2014 ©2014 Society of American Archivists."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Standards for Digital Archives Presenter: Mahnaz Ghaznavi Liz Bishoff June 5, 2014 ©2014 Society of American Archivists

3 Curriculum and Certification Program offered by SAA:  Foundational Courses—must pass 4  Tactical and Strategic Courses—must pass 3  Tools and Services Courses—must pass 1  Transformational Courses—must pass 1  Course examinations are administered online. Digital Archives Specialist (DAS)

4 Explain how standards are created and the different standards creating bodies. Identify the different standards supporting digital archiving functions. Apply standards to basic digital archiving functions. Objectives

5  Why are standards important?  What kinds of standards and best practices are there? Content creation Selection Metadata Preservation Agenda

6 SCENARIO: YIKES! OH NO!

7 Poll: Do you try to convert to a readable format? Yes Yes, but it should be a standard format No, I’d leave it as we got it I haven’t got a clue, that’s why I’m taking this class

8 What would be the risks? Discussion: What do you do?

9 Would standards have made a difference? If so, how? Discussion: What do you do?

10 Why are standards important?

11 What is a standard? ad hoc improvised local practice de facto widespread adoption, shared specifications within a community de jure / published formal committee process of industry, national or international standards setting bodies

12 Who sets standards? International Standards Organization National Information Standards Organization American National Standards Institute National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

13 The big picture Preservation framework Selection

14 Content creation standards

15 Sustainability of Formats—Library of Congress

16 Organized by format descriptionsA few examples Still ImageSVG_1_1; TIFF_6 SoundWAVE; MP3_FF Moving ImageMPEG-4_FF_2; AVI TextualNITF; XML Web ArchiveARC_IA; WARC DatasetsDBF; HDF5 GeospatialESRI_shape; GeoPDF_2_2 GenericASF; RIFF

17 ISO : Document management - Electronic document file format for long-term preservation (PDF/A)

18 PDF/A: different levels of conformance.

19 ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1 – Coding of moving pictures and audio Defined coding for motion pictures and audio beginning work in 1988  MPEG-1--ISO/IEC  MPEG-2--ISO/IEC  MPEG-21--ISO/IEC 21000

20 ISO :2001 TIFF/EP Tag Image File Format/Electronic Photography different from TIFF Revision a standard administered by Adobe is a subset of TIFF v 6.0

21 Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI)  Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Cultural Heritage Materials NISO Framework for Building Good Digital Collections, v Implementation Guidelines/Best Practices

22 What do you think? Discussion: How prescriptive will you be?

23 What do you think? Poll: Normalization by creator, archive, or both?

24 Selection criteria Repository specific – no single published standard

25 Selection decisions – some options Records management  ISO/TR 26122: Information and documentation -- Work process analysis for records Is an application of ISO 15489:2001 – Information and documentation -- Records management

26 Selection decisions – some options Archival appraisal Collection development policy

27 Metadata standards Choices made today have implications for interoperability, retrieval, and access tomorrow.

28 Getty Metadata Standards Crosswalk

29 For the description of resources Extensible: permits different levels of granularity and interoperability Commonly understood semantics: can be used in a variety of repository systems, eg D-Space, CONTENTdm ISO 15386:2009- Information and documentation – The Dublin Core metadata element set

30 ISO 15386:2009 – Dublin Core (continued) – example DC ElementValue Title"Candle in the Wind” Subject"Diana, Princess of Wales” Date"1997” Creator"John, Elton” Type"sound” Description"Tribute to a dead princess” Relation"IsVersionOf Elton John's 1976 song Candle in the Wind”

31 Creation, generation, conversion, extraction tools available International in scope Maintained by Dublin Core Metadata Initiative ISO 15386:2009 – Dublin Core (continued)

32 Uses language based tags rather than numeric tags Maintained by the Library of Congress Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS)

33 “Structure for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata” (LC) data sets, geospatial, audio, image, text, web sites For internal or repository to repository transfer ISO Metadata Encoding Transmission Standard (METS)

34 ISO Forms (OAIS) packages (METS) that consist of parts METS header Descriptive metadata Administrative metadata File section Structural Map Structural Links Behavior

35 ISO Metadata Encoding Transmission Standard (METS) Profiles Implementation registry Tools for creation/management Endorsed schemas

36 for management of still raster bitmap images from scanning or digital photography, editing or migration ANSI/NISO Z Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images (MIX)

37 Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) Data Dictionary 2.2 Technical- and implementation-neutral What to capture, not where or how to store Requires the addition of technical metadata and controlled vocabularies, as needed Developed by an international consortia lead by OCLC and RLG

38 PREMIS (continued) “Semantic units” = metadata elements

39 What metadata schema does your organization use? Dublin Core? MODS? METS? MIX? PREMIS? We have none of these What do you think? Discussion:

40 Preservation standards

41 ISO 14721: Space data and information transfer systems -- Open archival information system -- Reference model

42 ISO 14721:2003 Open Archival Information System Reference Model

43 Technical- and implementation-neutral framework Any organization or system tasked with preserving content over the long term and making it accessible to specified users What is OAIS?

44 OAIS: Expected to meet certain minimum functional responsibilities Ingest Archival storage Data management Preservation planning Administration Access

45 Replaces: Trustworthy Repositories Audit & Certification (TRAC): Criteria and Checklist Audits organizational structure, digital object management, technology ISO 16363:2012 Audit and Certification of trustworthy digital repositories

46 Establishes documentation requirements for audit methodologies for determining soundness and sustainability of digital repositories ISO (continued)

47 OAIS compliant software and TRAC certified services OAIS compliant software  ExLibris Rosetta  LOCKSS  Private LOCKSS Network  Chronopolis  Archivematica  Tessella SRB  Tessella Preservica Center for Research Library does audit and certification  Portico  Hathi Trust  Chronopolis

48 Access – some areas to consider: design User centered design of GUIs ISO 9241

49 Access – some areas to consider: legal Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) /Intellectual property risks Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) / for government/public records archives Americans with Disabilities Act – Section 508

50 In closing No one size fits all Some documentation is better than no documentation Adoption of standards facilitates replication of what went right

51 Questions about this presentation: Mahnaz Ghaznavi Liz Bishoff Questions about DAS Thank you for your time today

52 Slide 10. The River Place (2007). Plugs (connectors) that fit the socket. Retrieved from Slide 19. George Grantham Bain Collection (Library of Congress). Retrieved from Slide 20. Hetteix, D. (2014) Video Camera [.svg]. Retrieved from Slide 21. Matthews, C. (2012) Education [.svg]. Retrieved from Slide 26. Getty Research Institute (n.d.). Getty Metadata Standards Crosswalk. Retrieved from Slide 47. Mahlberg, A. (2012) Computer [.svg]. Retrieved from Slide 49. Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection (Library of Congress). Retrieved from References

53  The DAS webinar fee (which is a site fee that stays the same regardless of how many people participate) includes one examination for the purchaser or her/his designee. Please contact us to receive your link to the online  If participating colleagues or students wish to pursue the DAS Certificate by taking the course examination for the webinar, the purchaser must verify their attendance by submitting a roster (form is included in your handouts) of their names and addresses to  Examination seekers may then contact SAA ( ) to register and receive a link to the online examination. There is an administrative fee of $35 for each webinar examination. DAS Webinar procedures


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