Curriculum and Certification Program offered by SAA: Foundational Courses—must pass 4 Tactical and Strategic Courses—must pass 3 Tools and Services Courses—must pass 1 Transformational Courses—must pass 1 Course examinations are administered online. Digital Archives Specialist (DAS)
Explain how standards are created and the different standards creating bodies. Identify the different standards supporting digital archiving functions. Apply standards to basic digital archiving functions. Objectives
Why are standards important? What kinds of standards and best practices are there? Content creation Selection Metadata Preservation Agenda
SCENARIO: YIKES! OH NO!
Poll: Do you try to convert to a readable format? Yes Yes, but it should be a standard format No, I’d leave it as we got it I haven’t got a clue, that’s why I’m taking this class
What would be the risks? Discussion: What do you do?
Would standards have made a difference? If so, how? Discussion: What do you do?
Why are standards important?
What is a standard? ad hoc improvised local practice de facto widespread adoption, shared specifications within a community de jure / published formal committee process of industry, national or international standards setting bodies
Who sets standards? International Standards Organization National Information Standards Organization American National Standards Institute National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
The big picture Preservation framework Selection
Content creation standards
Sustainability of Formats—Library of Congress
Organized by format descriptionsA few examples Still ImageSVG_1_1; TIFF_6 SoundWAVE; MP3_FF Moving ImageMPEG-4_FF_2; AVI TextualNITF; XML Web ArchiveARC_IA; WARC DatasetsDBF; HDF5 GeospatialESRI_shape; GeoPDF_2_2 GenericASF; RIFF
ISO : Document management - Electronic document file format for long-term preservation (PDF/A)
PDF/A: different levels of conformance.
ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1 – Coding of moving pictures and audio Defined coding for motion pictures and audio beginning work in 1988 MPEG-1--ISO/IEC MPEG-2--ISO/IEC MPEG-21--ISO/IEC 21000
ISO :2001 TIFF/EP Tag Image File Format/Electronic Photography different from TIFF Revision a standard administered by Adobe is a subset of TIFF v 6.0
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI) Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Cultural Heritage Materials NISO Framework for Building Good Digital Collections, v Implementation Guidelines/Best Practices
What do you think? Discussion: How prescriptive will you be?
What do you think? Poll: Normalization by creator, archive, or both?
Selection criteria Repository specific – no single published standard
Selection decisions – some options Records management ISO/TR 26122: Information and documentation -- Work process analysis for records Is an application of ISO 15489:2001 – Information and documentation -- Records management
Selection decisions – some options Archival appraisal Collection development policy
Metadata standards Choices made today have implications for interoperability, retrieval, and access tomorrow.
Getty Metadata Standards Crosswalk
For the description of resources Extensible: permits different levels of granularity and interoperability Commonly understood semantics: can be used in a variety of repository systems, eg D-Space, CONTENTdm ISO 15386:2009- Information and documentation – The Dublin Core metadata element set
ISO 15386:2009 – Dublin Core (continued) – example DC ElementValue Title"Candle in the Wind” Subject"Diana, Princess of Wales” Date"1997” Creator"John, Elton” Type"sound” Description"Tribute to a dead princess” Relation"IsVersionOf Elton John's 1976 song Candle in the Wind”
Creation, generation, conversion, extraction tools available International in scope Maintained by Dublin Core Metadata Initiative ISO 15386:2009 – Dublin Core (continued)
Uses language based tags rather than numeric tags Maintained by the Library of Congress Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS)
“Structure for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata” (LC) data sets, geospatial, audio, image, text, web sites For internal or repository to repository transfer ISO Metadata Encoding Transmission Standard (METS)
ISO Forms (OAIS) packages (METS) that consist of parts METS header Descriptive metadata Administrative metadata File section Structural Map Structural Links Behavior
ISO Metadata Encoding Transmission Standard (METS) Profiles Implementation registry Tools for creation/management Endorsed schemas
for management of still raster bitmap images from scanning or digital photography, editing or migration ANSI/NISO Z Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images (MIX)
Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) Data Dictionary 2.2 Technical- and implementation-neutral What to capture, not where or how to store Requires the addition of technical metadata and controlled vocabularies, as needed Developed by an international consortia lead by OCLC and RLG
PREMIS (continued) “Semantic units” = metadata elements
What metadata schema does your organization use? Dublin Core? MODS? METS? MIX? PREMIS? We have none of these What do you think? Discussion:
ISO 14721: Space data and information transfer systems -- Open archival information system -- Reference model
ISO 14721:2003 Open Archival Information System Reference Model
Technical- and implementation-neutral framework Any organization or system tasked with preserving content over the long term and making it accessible to specified users What is OAIS?
OAIS: Expected to meet certain minimum functional responsibilities Ingest Archival storage Data management Preservation planning Administration Access
Replaces: Trustworthy Repositories Audit & Certification (TRAC): Criteria and Checklist Audits organizational structure, digital object management, technology ISO 16363:2012 Audit and Certification of trustworthy digital repositories
Establishes documentation requirements for audit methodologies for determining soundness and sustainability of digital repositories ISO (continued)
OAIS compliant software and TRAC certified services OAIS compliant software ExLibris Rosetta LOCKSS Private LOCKSS Network Chronopolis Archivematica Tessella SRB Tessella Preservica Center for Research Library does audit and certification Portico Hathi Trust Chronopolis
Access – some areas to consider: design User centered design of GUIs ISO 9241
Access – some areas to consider: legal Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) /Intellectual property risks Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) / for government/public records archives Americans with Disabilities Act – Section 508
In closing No one size fits all Some documentation is better than no documentation Adoption of standards facilitates replication of what went right
Questions about this presentation: Mahnaz Ghaznavi Liz Bishoff Questions about DAS Thank you for your time today
Slide 10. The River Place (2007). Plugs (connectors) that fit the socket. Retrieved from Slide 19. George Grantham Bain Collection (Library of Congress). Retrieved from Slide 20. Hetteix, D. (2014) Video Camera [.svg]. Retrieved from Slide 21. Matthews, C. (2012) Education [.svg]. Retrieved from Slide 26. Getty Research Institute (n.d.). Getty Metadata Standards Crosswalk. Retrieved from Slide 47. Mahlberg, A. (2012) Computer [.svg]. Retrieved from Slide 49. Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection (Library of Congress). Retrieved from References
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