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Programs & Defining Data Ch.5 – pp

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Data in Computer Memory See page Byte locations in memory - One character per byte location 483

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Data in Memory G=C7= E=C5= O=D6= R=D9= G=C7= E=C5= =F3= =F4= The characters shown in memory are really made up of binary digits (bits) as depicted to the right. In a mainframe computer, the bits are configured as EBCDIC whereas in a PC, the bit configurations are different, in ASCII. Are you comfortable with ASCII and EBCDIC? Are you comfortable with binary/hexadecimal data configurations? If not, check out your textbook on pages: in Ch.4

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DecimalBinaryHex A B C D E F Hexadecimal conversion chart – the same as shown in your text on page 70. Representing Data 1 Character = 1 Byte = 2 Hex Digits

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Representing Character Data Left justified - padded with blanks (40) - truncated to the right Example: GEORGE=C7 C5 D6 D9 C7 C5

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Define Storage / Constant

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Defining Storage Reserve Storage with no initialization See Data Definitions topic beginning p.103 Used to allow a symbolic name for an area of memory symbolicname DS definition 1-8 alphanumeric characters 1 st must be alphabetic 1. Duplication factor 2. Type code 3. Length

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Defining Storage Example Output buffer area that will be printed – allows each sub-field to be identified and accessed symbolically and the entire area can also be accessed as OWKAREA. Example: MOVEOWKPRICE,INVCOST*MOVE COST TO PRICE MOVEOWKONHND,INVHAND*MOVE ONHAND TO ONHAND PUTOUTFILE,OWKAREA*PRINT ENTIRE O/P RECORD p. 103

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The numbers within the orange boxes represent the field lengths in bytes. The labels represent the subfield name (statement label). The entire field (made up of 7 subfields) constitutes the output buffer. Each subfield can be manipulated, then accessed together and in the same order as parts of OWKAREA

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And the Memory Reserved? UNPK OWKPRICE(5),PPRICE Print from OWKAREA

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Another Example?

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Initializing Storage Areas Define Constants – DC, rather than DS ABCDCC’ABC’C1 C2 C3 DSIGNDCC’$’5B NO3DCC’3’F3 NAMEDCC’JOE’D1 D6 C5 TAXRTDCC’28’F2 F8

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Example (w/instructions) CALCPACKRATE(4),TAXRT PACKTAXAMT(6),TOTINC MPTAXAMT(6),RATE UNPKINCTAX(8),TAXAMT(6) ….. RATEDSF TAXRTDCCL2’20’*F2 F0 TAXAMTDSPL6 TOTINCDCCL’40000’*F4 F0 F0 F0 F0 INCTAXDSCL8

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Other Data Types [label]DS/DCCcharacter Xhex Ppacked dec. Bbinary Ffullword (bin) Hhalfword (bin) Ddoubleword

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Representing Zoned Decimal Numbers are left justified, also padded to the right with blanks (same as character data) 1234=F1 F2 F3 F4 F1 F2 F3 C4 Feb. 8, 2007

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Representing Packed Decimal Right justified, padded with leading zeroes +1234= C -1234= D The top value is positive and the sign character is the right-most part of the value in memory. The lower value is negative. Notice the difference in the sign character.

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Representing Binary Data 1 byte = 8 binary digits (bits) (B6) Halfword = 2 bytes Fullword = 4 bytes The top value, defined as binary digits with length of 2 bytes in memory appears just as the value appears in the DC operand (but with 8 bits of leading 0’s as padding). On the other hand, when defined as a fullword (also binary), in memory, the 1-bits are no different, but there would be 4 bytes instead of 2 bytes – ‘ ’

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Convert Binary to Decimal = 809 Assign positional values to each binary digit beginning on the right – right-most bit is 2º, next bit to the left is 2 1, then 2 2, and so forth. Then simply add up the equivalent decimal values where there are 1-bits in the binary field above.

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Use the Scientific Calculator Calculators are found under the Accessories menu when you ‘click’ on the START button in the lower left corner of your screen. For the Scientific Calculator, click on the VIEW menu in the Calculator Window and choose ‘Scientific’ … Enter your DEC number, then ‘Click’ the BIN button to convert Dec Bin

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Convert Decimal to Binary Use the table on the top of page 75 that shows converting hex to decimal, but use it in reverse. Example: convert to hex Using entire table, find smallest number less than the number you are attempting to convert which is 12,228 which is hex 3000 (in Byte 3 in left-hand column). Record the Hex value on your piece of paper…3000. Subtract 12,228 from the original number – which is 2890 Find next smallest number again in the next column to the right (2816). Record the Hex value … B00 And so on until you are at the far right column (64 and 10). Record the Hex values … 40 and A 3B4A in hex is in binary answer. Or use the Scientific Calculator See the process on the next slide

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HexDecHexDecHexDecHexDecHexDec ,53614, ,07228, ,608312, ,144416,38441, ,880520,48051, ,216624,57661, ,752728,67271, ,288832,76882, ,824936,86492, A655,360A40,960A2,560A160A10 B720,896B45,056B2,816B176B11 C786,432C49,152C3,072C192C12 D851,968D53,248D3,328D208D13 E917,504E57,344E3,584E224E14 F983,040F61,440F3,840F240F = A A 15,178 = B

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Or - Convert Doing the Arithmetic / 16 = Remainder.625 is integer.625 X 16 = 10 (A) 948 / 16 = Remainder.25 is integer.25 X 16 = 4 (4) 59 / 16 = Remainder.6875 is integer.6875 X 16 = 11 (B) 3/16 = Remainder.1875 is integer.1875 X 16 = 3 (3) Using result in reverse order = 3B4A

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Converting Zoned to Packed Decimal Use the PACK instruction (p.84 & 85) Read a number from an input file. It is now in memory in zoned- decimal format – you cannot do arithmetic on it, so PACK it first (PACK removes the zones) PACK removes all the zones except the right-most, then reverses the right-most byte See examples on the next slide

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Book Examples ReceivingSending Before: F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 After: FF1 F2 F3 F4 F5 Before:00 00 F2 F6 F4 F8 After: FF2 F6 F4 F8 Before:00 F6 F3 F2 F0 F4 After:20 4FF6 F3 F2 F0 F4 p. 84/85 PACKRECEIVING,SENDING

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Converting Packed to Zoned Decimal Use the UNPK instruction (p. 85) You have completed performing arithmetic on a value and you wish to print it – packed decimal data is not printable UNPK puts zones back in the numbers and reverses the two right-most characters. See examples on the next slide

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Book Examples ReceivingSending Before: F After:F5 F6 F4 F3 F F Before: C After:F0 F0 F0 F3 C403 4C Before: D After:F1 D D p. 85 UNPKRECEIVING,SENDING

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Quick Review of Data ZD=F2 F0 F5 F5 F9 F7 F4 F7 F4 PD= F Hex=0C 41 2B 22 Bin= p. 76

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Instruction Formats Page 76 - bottom

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Instruction Lengths 2 addresses – sending and receiving fields M2

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Sending and Receiving Fields (A Reminder) ReceivingSending Before:F0 F4 F3 F9 F9F0 F0 F7 F0 F1 After:F0 F0 F7 F0 F1 See page 77 at the top

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A Typical 6-byte Instruction

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Sample 4-byte Instruction

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And A 2-byte Instruction

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Decimal Arithmetic Add Decimal APM1(L1),M2(L2)6-byte format M1(L1)M2(L2) Before: F01 0F After: C01 0F Before: F F After: C F In the 2 nd Add: high-order digit overflowed and lost

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Decimal Arithmetic Subtract Decimal SPM1(L1),M2(L2)6-byte format M1(L1)M2(L2) Before: F75 0F After: C75 0F

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Decimal Arithmetic Multiply Decimal MPM1(L1),M2(L2) –L1 has a max length of 16 bytes –L2 has a max length of 8 bytes M1(L1)M2(L2) Before: C50 0F After: C50 0F

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Decimal Arithmetic Divide Decimal DPM1(L1),M2(L2)6-byte format M1(L1)M2(L2) Before: C00 7C After: C 00 4C00 7C Quotient Remainder – length of divisor Before the instruction is executed, M2 is the divisor, M1 is the dividend. L1 and L2 are the lengths of each

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Decimal Arithmetic Zero-And-Add Packed ZAPM1(L1),M2(L2)6-byte format More like a Move instruction than an Add Instruction M1(L1)M2(L2) Before: C1C After: C1C

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