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Teacher and Student Attitudes Toward Information Technology in Four Nations: 1998 Texas (USA) Results Presentation to the Society for Information Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Teacher and Student Attitudes Toward Information Technology in Four Nations: 1998 Texas (USA) Results Presentation to the Society for Information Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teacher and Student Attitudes Toward Information Technology in Four Nations: 1998 Texas (USA) Results Presentation to the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education (SITE) 10th International Conference March 2, 1999 San Antonio, Texas Rhonda Christensen Gerald Knezek University of North Texas

2 Summary of USA 1998 Research Findings _ Attitudes toward technology become more positive with “training”. _ Some attitudes change more quickly than others (anxiety, acceptance, etc.) _ Teacher attitudes toward technology impact student attitudes. _ Attitude change is the precursor to new behaviors. _ Teacher Training is Essential!

3 Prior Work _ SITE 1997 _ Christensen, Rhonda and Knezek, Gerald (1997). Internal consistency reliabilities for 14 computer attitude scales. _ Knezek, Gerald and Christensen, Rhonda (1997). Changes in teacher attitudes during information technology training. _ Dissertation 1997 _ Christensen, Rhonda. (1997). Effect of technology integration education on attitudes of teachers and their students. _ SERA 1996 _ Christensen, Rhonda and Gerald Knezek. Constructing the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers (TAC) Questionnaire

4 Seven Factor Structure of TAC Factor Alpha#items F1 (Enthusiasm/Enjoyment).9730 F2 (Anxiety).9730 F3 (Avoidance).9013 F4 ( for Classroom).9511 F5 (Neg. impact of society).8511 F6 (Productivity Improvement).9630 F7 (Semantic Perception).9410

5 Pre-Post for a Texas Elem. School (Form A) 8/965/97 t Prob _ F1A Enthusiasm _ F2A Anxiety _ F3 Avoidance _ F _ F5 Neg. Impact _ F6A Prod. Imp _ F7 Kay's CAM

6 Pre-Post for Texas Elementary

7 TAT Focus: Assessing Attitudes Toward New Information Technologies (NIT) _ Electronic Mail _ Teacher Productivity _ Classroom Learning _ Multimedia _ WWW

8 Semantic Differential Template To me, Electronic Mail is: important__ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __unimportant boring__ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __interesting relevant__ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __irrelevant exciting__ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __unexciting means nothing__ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __means a lot appealing__ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __unappealing fascinating__ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __mundane worthless__ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __valuable involving__ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __uninvolving not needed__ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __needed

9 Pilot Test Site _ Large urban public school district in Texas _ 147 teachers from six K-12 schools _ May 1997 administration _ Cronbach’s Alpha:

10 Louisiana ‘97 Pre-Post PrePost f Prob. Kay's Semantic Teacher Student Likert WWW-Teacher WWW-Student MultiMedia-T MultiMedia-S Productivity-T Productivity-S

11 Pre-Post K-12 Teacher Data (Louisiana Spring 1997)

12 Lousiana Pre-Post ‘97 in Context of 4 Texas School Districts

13 Louisiana Pre-Post ‘97 in Context of 4 Texas School Districts

14 USA 1997 Estimates for TAC 16 Factor Reliabilities _ No. ItemsAlpha _ F1 (Enthusiasm)15.96 _ F2 (Anxiety)15.98 _ F3 (Acceptance)4.75 _ F4 ( )11.95 _ F5 (NI on Society)10.84 _ F6 (Prod-classroom)14.90 _ F7 (KaySemantic)10.94 _ F8 (Vocation)13.92 _ F9 (Prestige)8.75 _ F10 (Prod-teacher)14.94 _ F11 (Aversion)6.74 _ F12 (Gender)6.81 _ F13 (K&M Importance)8.83 _ F14 (L&G Confidence)6.83 _ F15 (P&P Relevance)10.89 _ F16 (P&P Enjoyment)8.90

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16 _ Mexico -NL MX-GUJ MX-TLX MX-QR USA-Texas MX Signif. _ F1 Enthusiam _ F2 Anxiety _ F3 Acceptance _ F _ F5 NIonSociety _ F6 ClassroomProd _ F7 Kay'sSem _ F8 Vocation _ F9 Prestige _ F10 TeacherProd _ F11 Aversion _ F13 K&MImportance _ F14 L&G Conf _ F15 P&PRelevance _ F16 P&PEnjoyment Educator Mean Scores on TAC Attributes (16 Factor Structure) for 4 States in Mexico vs. a Professional Development Site in Northern Texas

17 Mexico 1998 Estimates for TAC 16F Reliabilities (Spanish Translation) _ No. ItemsUS ‘97 MX Alpha ‘98 _ F1 (Enthusiasm) _ F2 (Anxiety) _ F3 (Acceptance) _ F4 ( ) _ F5 (NI on Society) _ F6 (Prod-classroom) _ F7 (KaySemantic) _ F8 (Vocation) _ F9 (Prestige)8.75 _ F10 (Prod-teacher) _ F11 (Aversion) _ F12 (Gender)6.81 _ F13 (K&M Importance) _ F14 (L&G Confidence) _ F15 (P&P Relevance) _ F16 (P&P Enjoyment)

18 Stages of Adoption of Technology Stage One: Awareness Stage Two: Learning the Process Stage Three: Understanding and application of the process Stage Four: Familiarity and confidence Stage Five: Adaptation to other contexts Stage Six: Creative application to new contexts

19 Texas Inservice Teachers Prior to Technology Education

20 Inservice Teachers After One Year of Technology Education

21 Snapshot of School Consortium Stages of Adoption (1998 data for 1141 Texas Educators)

22 Preparing Teachers to Teach with Technology _ University of North Texas College of Ed. Technology Applications Endorsement _ 1100 Computer Applications _ WP, SS, DB _ 3440 Technology and the Teacher _ Teacher Productivity _ 4100 Computers in the Classroom _ Technology Integration _ 4xxx Higher level technology course

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24 Dutch vs. U.S. Educator Stages of Adoption

25 Dutch vs. American Educator Attitudes Toward IT

26 Dutch (1998) vs. American (1997) Reliability Estimates Factor Alpha U.S. NL#Items F1 (Enthusiasm/Enjoyment) F2 (Anxiety) F3 (Avoidance) F4 ( for Classroom) F5 (Neg. Impact on Society) F6 (Productivity Improvement) F7 (Semantic Perception).9410

27 Emerging Model - Three Essential Elements _ Will _ Attitudes (Anxiety, Acceptance, etc.) _ Skill _ Competencies _ Teacher Training _ Tools _ Software/hardware

28 Research Online and Research studies Online instruments Downloadable instruments Or contact: Rhonda Christensen Gerald Knezek


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