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VirtualFace: An Algorithm to Guarantee Packet Delivery of Virtual-Coordinate- Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Ming-Jer Tsai, Associate Professor.

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Presentation on theme: "VirtualFace: An Algorithm to Guarantee Packet Delivery of Virtual-Coordinate- Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Ming-Jer Tsai, Associate Professor."— Presentation transcript:

1 VirtualFace: An Algorithm to Guarantee Packet Delivery of Virtual-Coordinate- Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Ming-Jer Tsai, Associate Professor Department of Computer Science National Tsing Hua University

2 Sensors Eco ( 周百祥教授 ) Octopus II ( 許建平教授 )

3 Wireless Sensor Network 台北市政府空調監測系統 玻璃基板輸送帶震動監控 土石流暨五彎仔邊 坡滑動監測 生理資訊追蹤及肢體互動系統

4 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Wireless Sensor Network

5 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab.  Geographic Routing Protocol -GPS Assistance -A large amount of power consumption -Cannot be used indoor -Not suitable for wireless sensor networks  Virtual-Coordinate-Based Routing Protocol -Virtual Coordinate Assignment Protocol Routing Protocol

6 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. VCap (0,8,5) (1,7,4) (2,7,4) (2,8,3) (2,6,3) (3,6,4) (3,5,3) (3,5,2) (3,7,2) (4,6,1) (4,5,1) (4,4,2) (4,4,3) (5,6,0) (5,5,1) (5,3,3) (5,4,4) (6,5,5) (6,2,4) (6,4,5) (7,4,6) (7,3,6) (8,3,7) (8,2,7) (7,1,5) (8,1,6) (8,0,6) X Z Y (4,4,3)

7 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. VCap Routing Protocol (0,8,5) (1,7,4) (2,7,4) (2,8,3) (2,6,3) (3,6,4) (3,5,3) (3,5,2) (3,7,2) (4,6,1) (4,5,1) (4,4,2) (4,4,3) (5,6,0) (5,5,1) (5,3,3) (5,4,4) (6,5,5) (6,2,4) (6,4,5) (7,4,6) (7,3,6) (8,3,7) (8,2,7) (7,1,5) (8,1,6) (8,0,6) D(15,1)=sqrt(22), D(15,4)=sqrt(27), D(15,12)=sqrt(36), D(15,23)=sqrt(12), D(15,25)=sqrt(14). 23 D(15,1)=sqrt(22), D(15,2)=sqrt(3), D(15,4)=sqrt(27), D(15,23)=sqrt(12), D(15,25)=sqrt(14). 2 Src Dst D(15,2)=sqrt(3), D(15,15)=sqrt(0), D(15,23)=sqrt(12).

8 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Dead-End Problem of VCap Routing Protocol (0,8,5) (1,7,4) (2,7,4) (2,8,3) (2,6,3) (3,6,4) (3,5,3) (3,5,2) (3,7,2) (4,6,1) (4,5,1) (4,4,2) (4,4,3) (5,6,0) (5,5,1) (5,3,3) (5,4,4) (6,5,5) (6,2,4) (6,4,5) (7,4,6) (7,3,6) (8,3,7) (8,2,7) (7,1,5) (8,1,6) (8,0,6) 22 D(22,8)=sqrt(2), D(22,11)=sqrt(5), D(22,12)=sqrt(2), D(22,16)=sqrt(5), D(22,21)=sqrt(2). 21 Src Dst

9 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Virtual-Coordinate-Based Routing Protocols Routing ProtocolDelivery Guarantee Feature MAP (Mobicom 2005) Yes Axis-based, long path, need global topology ABVCap (Infocom 2007)YesAxis-based, long path VCap (Infocom 2005)NoLandmark-based, short path NoLandmark-based, short path HopID (TMC 2007)NoLandmark-based, short path VirtualFace: An Algorithm to Guarantee Packet Delivery of Virtual- Coordinate-Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks GLIDER (Infocom 2005) NoLandmark-based, short path GLDR (Infocom 2007)

10 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Outline  Virtual Face Construction Protocol  Virtual Face Naming Protocol  The VirtualFace Algorithm (VF)  Performance Evaluation  Conclusion

11 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. The Purpose X Y Z (10,0,6) (6,4,3) (7,4,2) (5,5,2) (6,5,1) (7,5,2) (8,6,3) (9,7,4) (6,6,3) (7,3,3) (4,6,3) (3,7,4) (2,8,5)(1,9,6) (0,10,7) (7,6,0) (9,1,5) (8,2,4) Src Dst (7,5,4) Dead-End Node (6,6,3) (8,6,3) (6,6,3) (7,7,4)

12 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. The Purpose X Y Z (10,0,6) (6,4,3) (7,4,2) (5,5,2) (6,5,1) (7,5,2) (8,6,3) (9,7,4) (7,3,3) (4,6,3) (3,7,4) (2,8,5)(1,9,6) (0,10,7) (7,6,0) (9,1,5) (8,2,4) Src Dst (7,5,4) Dead-End Node (6,6,3) (8,6,3) Progress Node (6,6,3) (7,7,4)

13 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. The Idea Head Node Tail Node

14 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. The Implementation Preprogrammed Node (0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (2) (4) (5) (6) Tail Node

15 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. The Implementation (0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (2) (4) (5) (6) Tail Node

16 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Message Reduction (1) (0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (2) (4) (5) (6) Tail Node (2)

17 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Construction of Connected Dominating Set

18 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Message Reduction (2) (0) (1) (2) (1) (3) (2) (4) (2) (3) (5) (6)

19 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Generation of Triangle-Free Subnetwork

20 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Virtual Face Construction Protocol

21 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Outline  Virtual Face Construction Protocol  Virtual Face Naming Protocol  The VirtualFace Algorithm (VF)  VCap augmented with the VirtualFace algorithm (VCap+VF)  Performance Evaluation  Conclusion

22 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. The Purpose (6,4,3) (7,4,2) (5,5,2) (6,5,1) (7,5,2) (8,6,3) (9,7,4) (7,3,3) (4,6,3) (3,7,4) (2,8,5)(1,9,6) (7,6,0) (9,1,5) (8,2,4) Src Dst (6,6,3) (9,7,4) f1 f2 f7 f5 f4 f6 f3

23 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. The Idea f1 f2 f7 f5 f4 f6 f3 f4 f6 f5 f7 f2 f1 f3 Src Dst

24 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. The Idea f4 f6 f5 f7 f2 f1 f3 f4 f6 f5 f7 f2 f1 f3

25 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. f1 f2 f7 f3 f6 f4 f5 0 2π2π 02π/8 0 f2 f7 2π/4 3π/12 f2 f6 f7 2π/8 The Idea 6π/12 f1 f2 f7 f5 f4 f6 f

26 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. f1 f2 f7 f5 f4 f6 f3 u w v m : f1.radius=0, f1.angle= : f4.radius=0, f4.angle= : f5.radius=0, f5.angle= fp=f1, f1.id, f1.angle, f1.radius f1.size=8, u.seq(f1)=2, f2.id, f6.id, f7.id u message content: w: f2.radius=1, f2.angle= fp=f1, f1.id, f1.angle, f1.radius f1.size=8, m.seq(f1)=1, f2.id, f7.id m message content: w: f2.radius=1, f2.angle= n fp=f4, f4.id, f4.angle, f4.radius f4.size=4, n.seq(f1)=2, f6.id n message content: v: f6.radius=1, f6.angle= The Implementation

27 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Outline  Virtual Face Construction Protocol  Virtual Face Naming Protocol  The VirtualFace Algorithm (VF)  Performance Evaluation  Conclusion

28 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. The Purpose (6,4,3) (7,4,2) (5,5,2) (6,5,1) (7,5,2) (8,6,3) (9,7,4) (7,3,3) (4,6,3) (3,7,4) (2,8,5) (1,9,6) (7,6,0) (9,1,5) (8,2,4) Src Dst (6,6,3) (9,7,4) f1 f2 f7 f5 f4 f6 f3 Route a packet in a virtual face closest to the destination virtual face

29 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. The Idea f1 f2 f7 f3 f6 f4 f5 f1 f2 f3 f6 f4 f5 Dst Src Dst Src

30 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Delivery Guarantee It suffices to show for each virtual face, there exists a neighboring virtual face closer to the destination virtual face. f1 f2 f7 f3 f6 f4 f5 Src f4 Dst f1 Src Dst

31 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. VCap + VirtualFace X (6,4,3) (7,4,2) (5,5,2) (6,5,1) (7,5,2) (8,6,3) (9,7,4) (6,6,3) (7,3,3) (4,6,3) (3,7,4) (2,8,5) (1,9,6) (0,10,7) (7,6,0) (9,1,5) (8,2,4) (8,3,4) (8,4,4) (8,6,3) (9,7,4) (10,8,5) (8,6,3) (9,7,4) Y Z (10,0,6) (8,3,4) VCap VirtualFace Src Dst

32 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab.  Virtual Face Construction Protocol  Virtual Face Naming Protocol  The VirtualFace Algorithm (VF)  Performance Evaluation  Conclusion Outline

33 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Performance Evaluation  Assumptions -The network was static. -The transmission range of a node was a circle of radius 1. -Network behavior were not taken into consideration.  Setup -Network size: 25*25 -Network density: 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 -Node Failure : 0%, 10%  Empirical data were obtained by averaging data of 1000 source-destination pairs from 100 networks.

34 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Packet Delivery Rate

35 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Routing Path Length

36 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Number of Next Hop Neighbors

37 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Load Imbalance Factor

38 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Number of Broadcasts

39 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Packet Delivery Rate in Networks with Node Failure

40 National Tsing Hua University Department of Computer Science Mobile and Distributed Computing Lab. Conclusion  We proposed the VirtualFace algorithm to guarantee packet delivery of virtual-coordinate-based routing protocols in wireless sensor networks.  After augmented with the VirtualFace algorithm, virtual-coordinate-based routing protocols GLIDER, Hop ID, GLDR, and VCap each -guarantee packet delivery -improve load balance -enhance fault tolerance -suffer from longer routing paths -decrease routing flexibility -require larger coordinate assignment costs  As compared to ABVCap, after augmented with the VirtualFace algorithm, -Hop ID, GLDR, and VCap each have a shorter routing path -GLIDER, Hop ID, GLDR, and VCap each have a higher packet delivery rate in networks with node failure


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