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Camera Controls This module is produced by: Richard Townend Fiona Jacques Clare Townend Next Page.

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Presentation on theme: "Camera Controls This module is produced by: Richard Townend Fiona Jacques Clare Townend Next Page."— Presentation transcript:

1 Camera Controls This module is produced by: Richard Townend Fiona Jacques Clare Townend Next Page

2 ContentsExitWelcome Welcome to this module which explores the principles of using the controls on an adjustable camera so that you can produce first class images. Who is it for? This module is designed for those who are new to making camera adjustments and will also provide a refresher for more experienced photographers. What do I need before I start this module? You may find it useful to have your camera and manual to hand so that you can relate the information to your specific camera. It may also be useful to have a paper and pen should you wish to make notes. How can I use the module? You can work through the module from beginning to end or use the contents page to access specific topics. What other help is available? You will find a list of useful web sites links and books at the end of the module. You can also go to the Sherburn Camera Club blog to ask questions or add comments. Click the buttons below to go back and forward through the module or go to the contents page to choose a specific topic.

3 ContentsExitContents Welcome Aim and objective Compare.com Points to consider Components of a good image Automatic settings Focus Metering Sensitivity Exposure Shutter speed Aperture stop settings Check mate More information Ask a question share your tips Click any of the headings below to go directly to a specific topic in the module.

4 ContentsExit Aim and objectives Aim This module aims to increase your confidence in changing to manual or semi automatic camera controls. Objectives By the end of the module you will be able to: Understand the effects of adjusting the camera controls Identify the circumstances when it is advantageous to adjust the controls Locate additional sources of information

5 ContentsExitCompare.com Can you identify with producing images like the one on the left? If so, you are only a few clicks away from making the changes to create images like the one at the right.

6 ContentsExit Points to consider Click each of the numbered green silhouettes in sequence to reveal five key points to consider about using this module.

7 ContentsExit Points to consider Different camera manufacturers use different terminology and therefore you may come across variations on the terms used in this module.

8 ContentsExit Points to consider For the purpose of this module we look at the controls in isolation. However in reality it is choosing the correct combination of settings that create the best image. Different camera manufacturers use different terminology and therefore you may come across variations on the terms used in this module.

9 ContentsExit Points to consider Most cameras have a fully automatic and manual mode and a variety of semi-automatic options. These will include shutter priority and aperture priority. Different camera manufacturers use different terminology and therefore you may come across variations on the terms used in this module. For the purpose of this module we look at the controls in isolation. However in reality it is choosing the correct combination of settings that create the best image.

10 ContentsExit Points to consider Most cameras have a fully automatic and manual mode and a variety of semi-automatic options. These will include shutter priority and aperture priority. Different camera manufacturers use different terminology and therefore you may come across variations on the terms used in this module. For the purpose of this module we look at the controls in isolation. However in reality it is choosing the correct combination of settings that create the best image. Remember to refer to your handbook to help relate this information to your specific make and model of camera.

11 ContentsExit Points to consider When used in automatic mode the camera chooses an average combination of settings. Most cameras have a fully automatic and manual mode and a variety of semi-automatic options. These will include shutter priority and aperture priority. Remember to refer to your handbook to help relate this information to your specific make and model of camera. Different camera manufacturers use different terminology and therefore you may come across variations on the terms used in this module. For the purpose of this module we look at the controls in isolation. However in reality it is choosing the correct combination of settings that create the best image.

12 ContentsExit Components of a good image In general terms what do you think are the two different aspects of creating a good image? Here’s a clue – the answers provided both begin with the letter C Click the large letter C below to reveal the answer.

13 ContentsExit Components of a good image In general terms what do you think are the two different aspects of creating a good image? Here’s a clue – the answers provided both begin with the letter C Congratulations if you guessed Camera controls and composition This module will only cover camera controls. We’ll start by looking at the way the camera works when you use the automatic program.

14 ContentsExit Automatic settings When using the automatic program all camera settings are adjusted for you. The diagram below shows you a brief explanation of what happens. By using a manual or semi-automatic program you can adjust the focus, the metering or the exposure to override the settings selected by the camera. You will learn more about these topics as you go through this module. The camera meters the subject to identify the correct exposure setting Meter The camera selects a mid setting for aperture and shutter speed Exposure The camera focuses on a point decided in the view finder Focus

15 ContentsExitFocus As the autofocus systems on modern cameras are very efficient, you will probably leave the camera on the automatic setting for most subjects. It is only specific instances where you would change to manual focus, for example, for extreme close up (macro) photography.

16 ContentsExit Metering measures the amount of light falling on the subject. The optimum camera settings are displayed in the view finder. The default and most frequently used option is called evaluative metering. The diagram below shows the evaluative metering pattern seen in the view finder. Click the diagram to show an example of the information that is displayed. Metering View finder showing evaluative metering pattern

17 ContentsExit Metering measures the amount of light falling on the subject. The optimum camera settings are displayed in the view finder. The default and most frequently used option is called evaluative metering. The diagram below shows the evaluative metering pattern seen in the view finder. The numbers in the view finder represent the shutter speed and aperture stop settings. Before we cover these in more detail we will explain sensitivity which is linked to metering and ISO settings. Metering f 16 View finder showing recommended shutter speed and aperture settings after metering View finder showing evaluative metering pattern

18 ContentsExit Sensitivity settings are measured in ISO numbers. These are based on the old film standards. The sequence is as follows: This follows the same patterns as shutters speeds and aperture stops, for example, ISO 200 requires only half the amount of light as ISO 100. In poor or low light conditions ISO 1600 setting could be used to produce an acceptable image. Sensitivity and metering are linked, so if the ISO is adjusted the metering will take this into consideration. The best quality is produced with the lowest ISO number. A high ISO number may result in a “grainy” image. Sensitivity

19 ContentsExitExposure The correct exposure is obtained by using a combination of the shutter speed and the aperture. If you adjust one setting the other has to be adjusted to compensate. This is called reciprocity. This means that there are a number of possible combinations which will all produce the correct exposure. Example Shutter speed f16 will give the same exposure as f4 On the next page you will find a diagram explaining the relationship between shutter speed and aperture.

20 ContentsExit Exposure diagram Diagram of aperture and shutter speed combinations which will all generate the same exposure. However, different combinations create different effects in the capture of the image. f 2f 2.8f 4f 5.6f 8f 11f 16f 22f 32 1/10001/5001/2501/1251/601/301/161/81/4 Shutter speed settings Aperture stop settings Moving on, we will explore shutter speed and aperture stops in more detail.

21 ContentsExit Shutter speed Shutter speed is the length of time that the sensor or film is exposed to light. The settings are indicated in fractions of a second. The scale is as follows: 1 second 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 When do you think you would need to choose a fast or a slow shutter speed? Click the image below to reveal the answer.

22 ContentsExit Shutter speed Shutter speed is the length of time that the sensor or film is exposed to light. The settings are indicated in fractions of a second. The scale is as follows: 1 second 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 When do you think you would need to choose a fast or a slow shutter speed? Choose a slow shutter speed to emphasise movement. Move to the next page to see the effect of using different shutter speeds. Choose a fast shutter speed to freeze movement.

23 ContentsExit Shutter speed examples Considering the information on the previous pages, click the image that you think is taken with a fast shutter speed.

24 ContentsExit Shutter speed examples Feedback The image on the right has the fast shutter speed and therefore captures the moving water more effectively. Shutter speeds of less than 1/30 second require the use of a tripod to avoid camera shake. f 32 f 2.8

25 ContentsExit Aperture stop settings Aperture is the size of the hole through which the exposure is taken and is measured in f stops. Each aperture stop allows through half the light of the previous. By changing to a small aperture stop, for example f 16 or f 22, you will obtain a greater depth of acceptable focus but with less light. The lower the f stop number the larger the aperture. This allows more light through for the exposure. The higher the f stop number the smaller the aperture. This allows less light through for the exposure. Move to the next page to see the effect of using different aperture stop settings. f 32 f 22 f 16 f 11 f 8 f 5.6 f 4 f 3.5 f 2.8 f 1.7

26 ContentsExit Aperture stop setting examples Thinking about the information given about aperture stops, click the image that you think has been taken with a large aperture stop number.

27 ContentsExit Aperture setting examples Feedback The image on the left has been taken using a large aperture resulting in a very shallow depth of acceptable focus. The image on the right has been taken using a small aperture resulting in a deep area of acceptable focus. This is usually referred to as “depth of field” f 1/1000 f 1/8

28 ContentsExit You have now finished the main content section and on the following pages you will find some questions and scenarios to check your understanding. You will be given feedback so that you can revisit the relevant sections in the unlikely event that you have answered anything incorrectly. At the end of the questions you can find out where to go to learn more about the subjects covered in this module. Check mate

29 ContentsExit Click to indicate which one of the following types of image you think would benefit from you manually adjusting the focus? Question 1

30 ContentsExit Feedback When focusing on a subject very close to the lens the depth of field is extremely shallow and manual focus is recommended for a more precise point of focus. Question 1 Feedback

31 ContentsExit Click to indicate which one of the following types of image you think would benefit from a small aperture. Question 2

32 ContentsExit Feedback A small aperture gives the maximum depth of field which in turn allows for acceptable sharpness from near subjects to infinity. Question 2 Feedback

33 ContentsExit Consider what camera controls would you set to enable you to take the image on the right? Go to the next page to reveal the answers. Scenario 1

34 ContentsExit Feedback Adjust the ISO to its highest setting to increase the sensitivity. However this may result in image quality problems. With the camera set on manual exposure, adjust the aperture stop to a high number to get the maximum depth of field. To ensure the correct combination of settings are selected, set a slow shutter speed. This requires the use of a tripod and a remote camera shutter release to eliminate camera shake. Scenario 1 Feedback

35 ContentsExit Scenario 2 Consider what camera controls you would adjust to enable you to take the image on the right? Go to the next page to reveal the answers.

36 ContentsExit Scenario 2 Feedback Feedback This is a classic example for using shutter priority automatic exposure because the fastest shutter speed is required to freeze the action. By choosing the fastest possible shutter speed and allowing the camera to select the relevant f stop this achieves the correct exposure.

37 ContentsExit Useful web sites Further reading The Digital Photography Book Scott Kelby Digital SLR Masterclass Andy Rouse Digital Photography – Essential Skills Mark Galer More information If you click any of the web site addresses below you will go directly to the appropriate internet page.

38 ContentsExit Ask a question, share your tips You can access a forum on the Sherburn Camera Club web site where you can ask a question or share your tips with other members of the club.

39 ContentsExitFinally.... Thank you for working through this module. We hope that you have found the module informative and enjoyable and that you are now feeling more confident about adjusting the controls on your camera. You may now want to explore how to compose good images and how to manipulate images on the computer. Members of the club are always willing to offer more help and advice. In the future we look forward to seeing some of your skills put into practice in the local photographic competitions and exhibitions.


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