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Relates to machining and turning centers

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) O0001 N005 T01 M06 N010 G54 G90 S500 M03 T02 N015 G00 X3.0 Y2.0 Example:

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses:

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses:

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: Sequence numbers are not mandatory You don’t have to include them in your programs We recommend including them… …but if control memory is at a premium… …many programmers eliminate them from programs

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses:

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses:

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: Tools must be rerun on a regular basis Make it as easy as possible to find the restart block If you eliminate sequence numbers, make your restart block number the tool station number O0008 (Center drill) N1 G54 G90 S1000 M03 T02 G00 X.375 Y.375 G43 H01 Z.1 G81 R.1 Z-.25 F3. Y2.625 X2.5 Y1.5 X4.625 Y2.625 Y.375 G80 G91 G28 Z0 M01 N2 T02 M06 G54 G90 S1100 M03 T03 G00 X.375 Y.375 G43 H02 Z.1 G81 R.1 Z-.65 F2.5 Y2.625 X4.625 Y.375 G80 G91 G28 Z0 M01 N3 T03 M06 G54 G90 S900 M03 T01 G00 X2.5 Y1.5 G43 H03 Z.1 G81 R.1 Z-.65 F4.0 G80 G91 G28 Z0 M01 G91 G28 X0 Y0 T01 M06 M30 Restart block sequence numbers match tool station number

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: Tools must be rerun on a regular basis Make it as easy as possible to find the restart block If you eliminate sequence numbers, make your restart block number the tool station number If you use sequence numbers, pick a special series for restart blocks O0008 (Center drill) N9001 G54 G90 S1000 M03 T02 N005 G00 X.375 Y.375 N010 G43 H01 Z.1 N015 G81 R.1 Z-.25 F3. N020 Y2.625 N025 X2.5 Y1.5 N030 X4.625 Y2.625 N035 Y.375 N040 G80 N045 G91 G28 Z0 N050 M01 N9002 T02 M06 N055 G54 G90 S1100 M03 T03 N060 G00 X.375 Y.375 N065 G43 H02 Z.1 N070 G81 R.1 Z-.65 F2.5 N075 Y2.625 N080 X4.625 N085 Y.375 N090 G80 N095 G91 G28 Z0 N100 M01 N9003 T03 M06 N105 G54 G90 S900 M03 T01 N110 G00 X2.5 Y1.5 N115 G43 H03 Z.1 N120 G81 R.1 Z-.65 F4.0 N125 G80 N130 G91 G28 Z0 N135 M01 N140 G91 G28 X0 Y0 N145 T01 M06 N150 M30 Restart block sequence numbers are in a special series (9000 in this case)

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses:

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses:

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: A statement label marks a command N025 G71 P030 Q075 D1250 U0.04 W0.005 F0.01 N030 G00 X-.9 N035 G01 Z0 N040 X1.0 Z-0.05 N045 Z-1.0 N050 X1.875 N060 X2.0 Z-1.0625 N065 Z-2.0 N070 X2.75 N075 X3.0 Z-2.125 Turning center multiple repetitive cycle: Start of finish pass definition End of finish pass definition Statement labels

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: A statement label marks a command In a main program you can cause the control to jump to a statement label M99 P050 Go to line N050 Also called an unconditional branch command N050 will be the statement label that the control will “go to”

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: A statement label marks a command Trial boring on a machining center. N255 T04 M06 (2.3750 boring bar) N260 G54 G90 S450 M03 T05 N265 G00 X4.0 Y4.0 N270 G43 H04 Z0.1 M08 N275 F2.5 /N280 M98 P1000 /N285 M98 P1000 /N290 M98 P1000 /N295 M98 P1000 N300 G86 R0.1 Z-1.0 F2.5. An earlier example:

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: A statement label marks a command Trial boring on a machining center. N255 T04 M06 (2.3750 boring bar) N260 G54 G90 S450 M03 T05 N265 G00 X4.0 Y4.0 N270 G43 H04 Z0.1 M08 N275 F2.5 /N280 M98 P1000 /N285 M98 P1000 /N290 M98 P1000 /N295 M98 P1000 N300 G86 R0.1 Z-1.0 F2.5. An earlier example: Four attempts

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: A statement label marks a command Trial boring on a machining center. N255 T04 M06 (2.3750 boring bar) N260 G54 G90 S450 M03 T05 N265 G00 X4.0 Y4.0 N270 G43 H04 Z0.1 M08 N275 F2.5 /N280 M98 P1000 /N285 M99 P280 N290 G86 R0.1 Z-1.0 F2.5. An earlier example: Unlimited number of attempts As long as the block delete switch is off, the control will continue executing line N280

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: A statement label marks a command Changing machining order: 1) Rough turn 2) Finish turn 3) Drill 2” hole 4) Rough bore 5) Finish bore Bad process: Rough everything before you finish anything 1) Rough turn 2) Drill 2” hole 3) Rough bore 4) Finish bore 5) Finish turn Better process:

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: A statement label marks a command O0008 (Program with bad process) N005 T0101 M41 (Rough turn) N010 G96 S400 M03 N015 G00 X3.040 Z0.1 N020 G01 Z-1.995 F0.017 N025 X3.25 N030 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N035 M01 N040 T0202 M42 (Finish turn) N045 G96 S600 M03 N050 G00 X3. Z0.1 N055 G01 Z-2.0 F0.006 N060 X3.25 N065 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N070 M01 N075 T0303 M41 (2” drill) N080 G97 S300 M03 N085 G00 X0 Z0.1 N090 G01 Z-2.6 F.009 N095 G00 Z0.1 N100 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N105 M01 N110 T0404 M41 (1.5” rough boring bar) N115 G96 S400 M03 N120 G00 X2.085 Z0.1 N125 G01 Z-1.995 F0.010 N130 X2.0 N135 G00 Z0.1 N140 X6.0 Z5.0 N145 M01 N150 T0505 M42 (1.5” finish boring bar) N155 G96 S600 M03 N160 G00 X1.125 Z0.1 N165 G01 Z-2.0 F0.006 N170 X2.0 N175 G00 Z0.1 N180 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N185 M30 Program with bad process

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: A statement label marks a command O0008 (Program with bad process) N005 T0101 M41 (Rough turn) N010 G96 S400 M03 N015 G00 X3.040 Z0.1 N020 G01 Z-1.995 F0.017 N025 X3.25 N030 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N035 M01 N040 T0202 M42 (Finish turn) N045 G96 S600 M03 N050 G00 X3. Z0.1 N055 G01 Z-2.0 F0.006 N060 X3.25 N065 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N070 M01 N075 T0303 M41 (2” drill) N080 G97 S300 M03 N085 G00 X0 Z0.1 N090 G01 Z-2.6 F.009 N095 G00 Z0.1 N100 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N105 M01 N110 T0404 M41 (1.5” rough boring bar) N115 G96 S400 M03 N120 G00 X2.085 Z0.1 N125 G01 Z-1.995 F0.010 N130 X2.0 N135 G00 Z0.1 N140 X6.0 Z5.0 N145 M01 N150 T0505 M42 (1.5” finish boring bar) N155 G96 S600 M03 N160 G00 X1.125 Z0.1 N165 G01 Z-2.0 F0.006 N170 X2.0 N175 G00 Z0.1 N180 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N185 M30 N038 M99 P075 Go to line N075

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: A statement label marks a command O0008 (Program with bad process) N005 T0101 M41 (Rough turn) N010 G96 S400 M03 N015 G00 X3.040 Z0.1 N020 G01 Z-1.995 F0.017 N025 X3.25 N030 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N035 M01 N040 T0202 M42 (Finish turn) N045 G96 S600 M03 N050 G00 X3. Z0.1 N055 G01 Z-2.0 F0.006 N060 X3.25 N065 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N070 M01 N075 T0303 M41 (2” drill) N080 G97 S300 M03 N085 G00 X0 Z0.1 N090 G01 Z-2.6 F.009 N095 G00 Z0.1 N100 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N105 M01 N110 T0404 M41 (1.5” rough boring bar) N115 G96 S400 M03 N120 G00 X2.085 Z0.1 N125 G01 Z-1.995 F0.010 N130 X2.0 N135 G00 Z0.1 N140 X6.0 Z5.0 N145 M01 N150 T0505 M42 (1.5” finish boring bar) N155 G96 S600 M03 N160 G00 X1.125 Z0.1 N165 G01 Z-2.0 F0.006 N170 X2.0 N175 G00 Z0.1 N180 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N185 M30 N038 M99 P075 N183 M99 P040 Go to line N040

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses: A statement label marks a command O0008 (Program with bad process) N005 T0101 M41 (Rough turn) N010 G96 S400 M03 N015 G00 X3.040 Z0.1 N020 G01 Z-1.995 F0.017 N025 X3.25 N030 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N035 M01 N040 T0202 M42 (Finish turn) N045 G96 S600 M03 N050 G00 X3. Z0.1 N055 G01 Z-2.0 F0.006 N060 X3.25 N065 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N070 M01 N075 T0303 M41 (2” drill) N080 G97 S300 M03 N085 G00 X0 Z0.1 N090 G01 Z-2.6 F.009 N095 G00 Z0.1 N100 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N105 M01 N110 T0404 M41 (1.5” rough boring bar) N115 G96 S400 M03 N120 G00 X2.085 Z0.1 N125 G01 Z-1.995 F0.010 N130 X2.0 N135 G00 Z0.1 N140 X6.0 Z5.0 N145 M01 N150 T0505 M42 (1.5” finish boring bar) N155 G96 S600 M03 N160 G00 X1.125 Z0.1 N165 G01 Z-2.0 F0.006 N170 X2.0 N175 G00 Z0.1 N180 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 N185 M30 N038 M99 P075 N183 M99 P040 N073 M99 P185 Go to line N185 With three simple edits, we’ve quickly changed the machining order for this program… …the machine can begin the production run But this program is hard to follow… …the programmer should eventually change the program (at a text editor) to eliminate the M99s

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Commonly taught in basic CNC courses: Techniques with sequence numbers 3N words are sequence numbers 3Not needed but beginners use them 3Use logical order (N5, N10, N15, etc.) áEliminating áSpecial restart blocks áAs statement labels Applications not always taught in basic courses:

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Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Digital Design and Computer Architecture David Money Harris and Sarah L. Harris.

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