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Artificial Intelligence Techniques. Aims: Section fundamental theory and practical applications of artificial neural networks.

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Presentation on theme: "Artificial Intelligence Techniques. Aims: Section fundamental theory and practical applications of artificial neural networks."— Presentation transcript:

1 Artificial Intelligence Techniques

2 Aims: Section fundamental theory and practical applications of artificial neural networks.

3 Aims: Session Aim Introduction to the biological background and implementation issues relevant to the development of practical systems.

4 Biological neuron  Taken from http://hepunx.rl.ac.uk/~candreop/minos/NeuralN ets/neuralNetIntro.html

5 Human brain consists of approx. 10 billion neurons interconnected with about 10 trillion synapses.

6  A neuron: specialized cell for receiving, processing and transmitting informations.

7  Electric charge from neighboring neurons reaches the neuron and they add.

8  The summed signal is passed to the soma that processing this information.

9  A signal threshold is applied.

10 If the summed signal > threshold, the neuron fires

11 Constant output signal is transmitted to other neurons.

12  The strength and polarity of the output depends features of each synapse

13  varies these features - adapt the network.

14  varies the input contribute - vary the system!

15 Simplified neuron  Taken from http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/people/a.turner/pr ojects/medalus3/Task1.htm

16 Exercise 1  In groups of 2-3, as a group:  Write down one question about this topic?

17 McCulloch-Pitts model X1 X2 X3 W1 W2 W3 T Y Y=1 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3  T Y=0 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/3387927/12/slides/slide_16.jpg", "name": "McCulloch-Pitts model X1 X2 X3 W1 W2 W3 T Y Y=1 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3  T Y=0 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3

18 McCulloch-Pitts model Y=1 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3  T Y=0 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/3387927/12/slides/slide_17.jpg", "name": "McCulloch-Pitts model Y=1 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3  T Y=0 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3

19 Logic functions - OR X1 X2 1 1 1 Y Y = X1 OR X2

20 Logic functions - AND X1 X2 1 1 2 Y Y = X1 AND X2

21 Logic functions - NOT X 0 Y Y = NOT X

22 McCulloch-Pitts model X1 X2 X3 W1 W2 W3 T Y Y=1 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3  T Y=0 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/3387927/12/slides/slide_21.jpg", "name": "McCulloch-Pitts model X1 X2 X3 W1 W2 W3 T Y Y=1 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3  T Y=0 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3

23 Introduce the bias Take the threshold over to the other side of the equation and replace it with a weight W0 which equals -T, and include a constant input X0 which equals 1.

24 Introduce the bias Y=1 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3 - T 0 Y=0 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3 -T <0

25 Introduce the bias  Lets just use weights – replace T with a ‘fake’ input  ‘fake’ is always 1.

26 Introduce the bias Y=1 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3 +W0X0 0 Y=0 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3 +W0X0 <0

27 Short-hand notation Instead of writing all the terms in the summation, replace with a Greek sigma Σ Y=1 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3 +W0X0 0 Y=0 if W1X1+W2X2+W3X3 +W0X0 <0 becomes

28 Logic functions - OR X1 X2 1 1 Y Y = X1 OR X2 X0

29 Logic functions - AND X1 X2 1 1 Y Y = X1 AND X2 X0 -2

30 Logic functions - NOT X1 Y Y = NOT X1 X0 0

31 The weighted sum  The weighted sum, Σ WiXi is called the “net” sum.  Net = Σ WiXi  y=1 if net  0  y=0 if net < 0

32 Multi-layered perceptron  Feedback network  Train by passing error backwards  Input-hidden-output layers  Most common

33 Multi-layered perceptron (Taken from Picton 2004) Input layer Hidden layer Output layer

34 Hopfield network  Feedback network  Easy to train  Single layer of neurons  Neurons fire in a random sequence

35 Hopfield network x1 x2 x3

36 Radial basis function network  Feedforward network  Has 3 layers  Hidden layer uses statistical clustering techniques to train  Good at pattern recognition

37 Radial basis function networks Input layer Hidden layer Output layer

38 Kohonen network  All neurons connected to inputs not connected to each other  Often uses a MLP as an output layer  Neurons are self-organising  Trained using “winner-takes all”

39 What can they do?  Perform tasks that conventional software cannot do  For example, reading text, understanding speech, recognising faces

40 Neural network approach  Set up examples of numerals  Train a network  Done, in a matter of seconds

41 Learning and generalising  Neural networks can do this easily because they have the ability to learn and to generalise from examples

42 Learning and generalising  Learning is achieved by adjusting the weights  Generalisation is achieved because similar patterns will produce an output

43 Summary  Neural networks have a long history but are now a major part of computer systems

44 Summary  They can perform tasks (not perfectly) that conventional software finds difficult

45  Introduced  McCulloch-Pitts model and logic  Multi-layer preceptrons  Hopfield network  Kohenen network

46  Neural networks can  Classify  Learn and generalise.


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