Outline Introduction: Providing Knowledge Management through the agent-oriented paradigm KM Systems Development Methodology: Combining Tropos + AORML Ontology-based Approach How UFO was applied to combine Tropos and AORML Ongoing Work in this direction KM Processes Development Methodology Combining Tropos + ARIS Supporting Goal Elicitation through NFR Catalogues Goal Taxonomy to support alignment of goals and processes
Knowledge Management KM can be defined as a systematic process for acquiring, organizing and communicating knowledge to all members of an organization, enabling them to be more effective and productive in their work. Conveying to people the right piece of information at the right place, in the right time.
“There is no time for filling in the system with new knowledge.” “Oh, it’s too much effort to fill in the system, and then I can never find something useful in it when I need it.” “What if someone does something wrong with the knowledge I give away?” “Why should I share my knowledge if knowledge is power?” Knowledge Management Pitfalls Lack of trust Effort vs. Knowledge availability Detachment from daily working practices Lack of motivation
Theoretical Framework knowledge spiral communities of practice distributed knowledge management situated learning genetic epistemology social-historical constructivism constructionism dialogue and context in learning knowledge management theories constructivism physical meaningful artifacts perturbationcontext autonomy non-hierarchical knowledge sharing social interaction
Applying Agents as a Modeling Paradigm Concepts which are able to capture the human dimension which are closer to people (communication to the user is made easier) belief goal intention social ability desires learning ability
Combining Different Agent-oriented Modeling Languages
Methodology Requirements Developing a good understanding of the organizational setting before jumping into the solution space. Designing the system with an enough amount of detail to enable coding
Developing Effective KM Solutions overall organizational goals stakeholders goals negotiating and reconciling these goals Methodology
Requirements Model + Architectural Design + Detailed Design TroposAORML ARKnowD = ARKnowD: Agent-oriented Recipe for KM Systems Development
Tropos’ Language Actor Resource Goal Softgoal Plan Dependency Decomposition Contribution Means-end
Characteristics of Tropos Potential gives particular attention to requirements engineering, this makes it a natural candidate for organizational modeling is based in goal modeling: represent organization’s and stakeholders’ goals provides an abstract view of the organization (actors, goals, dependencies…), allowing us to leave details for later development cycles Limitations does not provide tools to model agent’s interaction and behavior with an appropriate amount of detail due to large use, constructs are extremely overloaded (there is no consensus regarding their use)
Agent-Object-Relationship Modeling Language (AORML) Agent Object Action (Communicative Action) Interaction Event Commitment/Claim Association Specialization Composition Do/Perceive (the action)
Characteristics of AORML Potential offers the means to model agent’s information, interaction and internal behavior in detail naturally captures reactive behavior by using rules models both agents and objects provides deontic modeling constructs such as commitments and claims, which form the basis for the establishment of such norms and contracts. Limitations lacks constructs specific for requirements analysis limited case tools support so far
How to consistently combine Tropos and AORML? As they are applied in distinct development activities, we can map Tropos to AORML using an MDD-inspired approach. Ontology-based approach to evaluate and map the notations: We extended the UFO ontology to represent social and intentional concepts present in the Agent domain. We used the ontology to evaluate Tropos’ notation and AORML, correcting a few limitations of each. We applied the ontology to understand which Tropos concepts mapped into the concepts in AORML.
Ontology applied to evaluate modeling languages (1/5) Use the ontology as a reference model to which the language’s metamodel must be isomorphic to. Language’s Metamodel Reference Ontology
Ontology applied to evaluate modeling languages (2/5) One concept in the language represents more than one concept from the reference ontology Reference Ontology Language’s Metamodel construct overload
Ontology applied to evaluate modeling languages (3/5) Two concepts in the language represent the same concept from the reference ontology Reference Ontology Language’s Metamodel construct redundancy
Ontology applied to evaluate modeling languages (4/5) A concept in the language has no counterpart in the reference ontology. Reference Ontology Language’s Metamodel construct excess ???
Ontology applied to evaluate modeling languages (5/5) A concept in the reference ontology has no counterpart in the language’s metamodel. Reference Ontology Language’s Metamodel incompleteness ???
Ontology applied to map two modeling languages Map the concept C1 of language A into the concept C2 of language B in a way that C1 and C2 reference the same concept in the reference ontology. Reference Ontology Language A’s Metamodel Language B’s Metamodel map
Transformation Rules MDD metamodel transformation: from CIM to PIM
ARKnowD Early Requirements Late Requirements Architectural Design Detailed Design Transformation Tropos AORML
Ongoing Work Evolving UFO-C ARKnowD’s Case Tool Completing previous work on implementing the transformation from Tropos to AORML on an existing tool (TAOM4E). Extending the methodology to coding (MDD: PIM to PSM). Organizational Patterns (Semi)-automatically recognizing the Constructivist KM Principles in the Tropos models.
But... KM support does not always require a supporting system. Business Process Modeling
Business Process Modeling focuses on a detailed understanding of the chain of activities that deliver the organization’s products and services.
Main benefits Allowing traceability between goals and business process models How goals are operationalized into BP. How BP impact the achievement of goals. Providing Modularity both to Goal and BP models. Diagnosing needs for reengineering. Developing process-oriented information systems which are aligned with organization’s goals.
Combining Goals and BPM Goal modeling + Business Process Modeling TroposARIS-EPC Organizational Model =
Example - BPM A Fragment of a Business Process Model in ARIS: Diagnosing a Patient
Limitations of goal models of BPM approaches Do not allow an in depth goal analysis Unclear semantics for decomposition. It does not model alternatives. It does not allow one to reason about how a goal directly impacts other goals. Weak connection to processes Relation about goals and processes is not clear. Lack of methodological guidance to elicit and model goals.
Case Study A case study in a real organization was conducted with the purpose of supporting the investigation regarding the relations between goals and processes. Three phases: Elicitation phase: goal models and BPMs were captured; Harmonization phase: a goal taxonomy was created to help in the alignment of goals and BPs; Alignment phase: UFO is applied to clarify the semantics of the elements of both models, enabling the alingment.
Elicitation Phase Preliminarly, standard methods were applied: interviews and observation of work. process oriented goals Non Functional Requirements (NFR) Catalogues were applied, helping to elicit allowed a more strategic point of view
Adjusting NFRs BP Requirements NFRs have been originally proposed for system requirements elicitation. We should adjust them for eliciting BP requirements. Approach: translating NFRs to the medical goal domain, relating the existing NFR types to selecting goals in our models. One big distinction: originally, they lead to Tropos softgoals in our case, they may lead both to Tropos goals and softgoals.
A few examples Accessibility - Access patient’s data records; Confidentiality - Maintain healthcare information private; Completeness - Obtain complete information about patient’s treatment; Accuracy - Obtain accurate information about patient’s treatment; Traceability - Obtain traceability for information in patient’s treatment (refined into Obtain traceability in investigation of patient’s condition, Obtain traceability in relation to treatment administered to patient and Obtain traceability in relation to physicians who prescribed patient’s treatment); Integrability - Integrate service with other hospital departments, Integrate service with municipal and state health services and Integrate service with specialists in areas related to rheumatology; Trust and confidence to the provider (assurance) - Trust physician Empathy – provide patient with caring and personalized attention
Harmonization Phase Taxonomy to guide how goals connect to processes (or portions of processes) Total of 15 different goal types, classified according to 6 dimensions. Examples: Dimension: Level of abstraction Fundamental goal (provide medical care to patient) Process goal (diagnose patient health state) Activity goal (prescribe patient’s treatment) Dimension: Temporal Aspect AS-IS (approve the treatment proposed by the resident) Change goal (standardize diagnosis cue sheets) TO-BE (coordinate patient care with other healthcare providers)
Acknowledgements This research is funded by the Brazilian Research Funding Agencies FAPES (grant number 45444080/09) and CNPq (grants number 481906/2009-6)