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1 HN Marketing Research Research influencing advertising Tutor: John Heuston

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Presentation on theme: "1 HN Marketing Research Research influencing advertising Tutor: John Heuston"— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 HN Marketing Research Research influencing advertising Tutor: John Heuston jheuston@central-glasgow.ac.uk

3 2 Premise: Research underpins advertising. Why, though? Research cuts out the gamble in advertising Research cuts out the gamble in advertising Research is used to discover a definite objective Research is used to discover a definite objective Research discovers the quickest way to that objective Research discovers the quickest way to that objective Research makes advertising (and by extension, marketing) measurable and manageable Research makes advertising (and by extension, marketing) measurable and manageable Research provides ‘legitimacy’ to common-sense Research provides ‘legitimacy’ to common-sense

4 3 The Marketing Concept You have all done Introduction to Marketing in first year? Identify needs and wants and try to satisfy them profitably It’s that word ‘identify’ Advertising is (partly) trying to affect behaviour, not just increase awareness – the emphasis is on results, not on the things (ads, brochures)

5 4 More… Part of Marketing suggests that businesses are under the control of consumers Part of Marketing suggests that businesses are under the control of consumers Using marketing research techniques, marketing people are able to know their consumers by backing everything up with statistical evidence. Using marketing research techniques, marketing people are able to know their consumers by backing everything up with statistical evidence. In other words: In other words: DON’T shoot first (promote), ask questions (research) later DON’T shoot first (promote), ask questions (research) later

6 5 But … Surely advertisers deal with ‘masses’ not individuals – millions not singles? Surely advertisers deal with ‘masses’ not individuals – millions not singles? Yes, but we try to clarify and position consumers to measure the things they have in common, to target advertising and to measure and predict(!) human behaviour Yes, but we try to clarify and position consumers to measure the things they have in common, to target advertising and to measure and predict(!) human behaviour Essentially what advertisers look for then is an ‘essence’ – what makes the consumer tick – a single measurable reason for motivation Essentially what advertisers look for then is an ‘essence’ – what makes the consumer tick – a single measurable reason for motivation

7 6 Also.. The main reason is money The main reason is money Advertisers want (need) to know their money is being spent wisely Advertisers want (need) to know their money is being spent wisely Matching brand’s potential customers with media usage Matching brand’s potential customers with media usage Research provides a yardstick by which advertisers can measure the value for money for their spend Research provides a yardstick by which advertisers can measure the value for money for their spend

8 7 1. Demographics Occupational class, age, gender (or ‘sex’ if you prefer), and region to indicate behaviour Occupational class, age, gender (or ‘sex’ if you prefer), and region to indicate behaviour It’s a case of ‘more likely’ It’s a case of ‘more likely’ A – Upper middle class A – Upper middle class B – Middle class B – Middle class C1 – Lower middle class C1 – Lower middle class C2 – Skilled working class C2 – Skilled working class D – Working class (unskilled, manual) D – Working class (unskilled, manual) E – Lowest subsistence levels E – Lowest subsistence levels (static markets, changing work patterns and status, suggests nothing) (static markets, changing work patterns and status, suggests nothing)

9 8 Motivation 1. Freudian – repressed motivations within hidden needs and desires 1. Freudian – repressed motivations within hidden needs and desires 2. By biological, psychological and social needs – developed by Maslow (1954) 2. By biological, psychological and social needs – developed by Maslow (1954) Self- actualisation Self-esteem Belonging Safety needs Physiological needs

10 9 Meaning … The personality of the consumer is drawn up and matched by a personality for the brand – a ‘brand image’ The personality of the consumer is drawn up and matched by a personality for the brand – a ‘brand image’ Eg, Unilever in 1960 used a naked woman – meaning? The brand was for ‘all woman’ – she is me Eg, Unilever in 1960 used a naked woman – meaning? The brand was for ‘all woman’ – she is me So the idea is that a person matches her or his own personality to that of the brand, or the person in the ad So the idea is that a person matches her or his own personality to that of the brand, or the person in the ad www.unilver.com www.unilver.com www.unilver.com

11 10 Psychographics Values Attitudes and Lifestyles (VALs), eg ‘nest builder’ stays at home, tends the garden, security – so susceptible to … Values Attitudes and Lifestyles (VALs), eg ‘nest builder’ stays at home, tends the garden, security – so susceptible to … Replacement of product differentiation with ‘consumer differentiation’ Replacement of product differentiation with ‘consumer differentiation’ Products and services to try and match the attitudes, personalities and values of the researched consumer – so aim at lifestyle, self-image Products and services to try and match the attitudes, personalities and values of the researched consumer – so aim at lifestyle, self-image Government anti-drug campaigns early 80s) Government anti-drug campaigns early 80s) Why do this – to make them stable and measurable Why do this – to make them stable and measurable

12 11 Lifestyles Generation X Generation X (Don’t know what they want and don’t care – no responsibility or commitment) (Don’t know what they want and don’t care – no responsibility or commitment) Innovators Innovators Followers Followers Empty nesters Empty nesters Joiners Joiners Struggling poor Struggling poor Resigned poor Resigned poor Complainers Complainers Do-gooders Do-gooders

13 12 But.. They are too static They are too static You are more than one You are more than one Is there a ‘typical consumer’? Is there a ‘typical consumer’? Is there a ‘typical brand’? Is there a ‘typical brand’? Most people buy most brands at some time or another Most people buy most brands at some time or another Must I have a break to have a Kit-Kat? Must I have a break to have a Kit-Kat?

14 13 Sagacity Combination of demographics, lifestyle, media usage, income, life- stage Combination of demographics, lifestyle, media usage, income, life- stage 1. Dependents 1. Dependents (adults not heads of household) (adults not heads of household) 2. Pre-family 2. Pre-family 3. Family 3. Family 4. Late 4. Late Used by banks and financial institutions Used by banks and financial institutions

15 14 Geodemographics Where you ‘choose’ to live reflects the type of person you are – similar outlook, spending patterns Where you ‘choose’ to live reflects the type of person you are – similar outlook, spending patterns One is ACORN (A Classification of Residential Neighbourhoods) by lifestyle, demographic and lifestage One is ACORN (A Classification of Residential Neighbourhoods) by lifestyle, demographic and lifestage Eg – C18 = urban neighbourhoods, rented accommodation, flats, no kids or pets, high phone bill, wine drinker Eg – C18 = urban neighbourhoods, rented accommodation, flats, no kids or pets, high phone bill, wine drinker Used by door-to-door leafleters, FMCGs Used by door-to-door leafleters, FMCGs Compiled from census data, electoral roll, county court judgements, postcode data Compiled from census data, electoral roll, county court judgements, postcode data

16 15 Users and buyers Are they the same? Are they the same? NRS 1999 – women are the biggest household buyers by 2:1 www.nrs.co.uk NRS 1999 – women are the biggest household buyers by 2:1 www.nrs.co.ukwww.nrs.co.uk 70% of watches, 90% of toys bought as gifts 70% of watches, 90% of toys bought as gifts Pester power for toys, parent for underwear – so the question is ‘who makes the decision?’ Pester power for toys, parent for underwear – so the question is ‘who makes the decision?’ 1985 – 8% of Guinness drinkers account for 35% sold 1985 – 8% of Guinness drinkers account for 35% sold So should we use a ‘spray and pray’ shotgun approach, in the hope the market settles down? So should we use a ‘spray and pray’ shotgun approach, in the hope the market settles down?

17 16 Basically… … Advertisers want to be told that if A is done, B will happen. Or at least the range of possibilities will narrow – or, I will mis-spend some but not all money … Advertisers want to be told that if A is done, B will happen. Or at least the range of possibilities will narrow – or, I will mis-spend some but not all money Forget this: Forget this: ‘New products are launched because you think there is a need for it. You research the campaign to see how well it goes and who is buying it. None of the things we have developed are due to research. They were research-supported’ ‘New products are launched because you think there is a need for it. You research the campaign to see how well it goes and who is buying it. None of the things we have developed are due to research. They were research-supported’

18 17 Established surveys 1. Social trends (government) 1. Social trends (government) 2. NRS www.nrs.co.uk 2. NRS www.nrs.co.ukwww.nrs.co.uk 3. TGI www.bmrb-tgi.co.uk (year- long survey matching brand purchase to media habits – how many C1s eat muesli (penetration) – how many muesli eaters are C1 (profile) – to form outlook groups – trendies, social spenders, pleasure seekers, moralists, independents, working class puritans – also has YouthTGI 3. TGI www.bmrb-tgi.co.uk (year- long survey matching brand purchase to media habits – how many C1s eat muesli (penetration) – how many muesli eaters are C1 (profile) – to form outlook groups – trendies, social spenders, pleasure seekers, moralists, independents, working class puritans – also has YouthTGIwww.bmrb-tgi.co.uk

19 18 Quantitative research: Quantitative research: (Demographics, users and lifestyle) (Demographics, users and lifestyle) Composition and size of consumer markets through opinions and buying habits Composition and size of consumer markets through opinions and buying habits Qualitative research: Qualitative research: Interpretation, views and opinions Interpretation, views and opinions Why bought, not just how many, quicker, cheaper Why bought, not just how many, quicker, cheaper Looking for tendencies to predict behaviour patterns – able to assert that sets of consumers are ‘more likely’ to do certain things than others Looking for tendencies to predict behaviour patterns – able to assert that sets of consumers are ‘more likely’ to do certain things than others

20 19 Qualitative research 1. Focus Group – 2. 1-2-1 depth 1. Focus Group – 2. 1-2-1 depth Focus group Focus group 90 minutes, 8 interviewees, run 8 for a cross-section – why and how they use the brand, feelings, attitudes, values, language they use – use general questionnaire to help, context in which brand is consumed – videoed, taped – most important factors in buying – ie, price, value for money, ‘me’, image, status, colour, taste, parts, safety, reliability 90 minutes, 8 interviewees, run 8 for a cross-section – why and how they use the brand, feelings, attitudes, values, language they use – use general questionnaire to help, context in which brand is consumed – videoed, taped – most important factors in buying – ie, price, value for money, ‘me’, image, status, colour, taste, parts, safety, reliability But people lie – so ‘method-acting’ comes in – for Empathy But people lie – so ‘method-acting’ comes in – for Empathy

21 20 Qualitative One-to-one Depth interviewing One-to-one Depth interviewing Freudian – remember – is about the subconscious, so it follows that some people may hide their true feelings – they can be brought out one-to-one – (eg, lager is not the taste) – if this car was a person, etc – drawings, acting, photo sorting Freudian – remember – is about the subconscious, so it follows that some people may hide their true feelings – they can be brought out one-to-one – (eg, lager is not the taste) – if this car was a person, etc – drawings, acting, photo sorting

22 21 Mapping the consumer Research is used to try and narrow the range of possibilities, rather than eliminate uncertainty altogether. Quite apart from advertisers wanting to feel secure in not wasting their money, marketers also want to feel secure in how they are spending the money that they are able to read behaviour and predict the future. Research is used to try and narrow the range of possibilities, rather than eliminate uncertainty altogether. Quite apart from advertisers wanting to feel secure in not wasting their money, marketers also want to feel secure in how they are spending the money that they are able to read behaviour and predict the future. What we are talking from ‘research-underpinned advertising’ is those most likely, those predisposed to buy and use. We are looking for typical consumers, people who will act in a predictable and manageable way. What we are talking from ‘research-underpinned advertising’ is those most likely, those predisposed to buy and use. We are looking for typical consumers, people who will act in a predictable and manageable way. You’ve bought before? You will buy again You’ve bought before? You will buy again You behave like he who does? You will buy like him You behave like he who does? You will buy like him

23 22 Real example: Heinz Soup Cup Shorts Promotion: Metro newspaper 1/11/04 Promotion: Metro newspaper 1/11/04 Heinz Soup Cups. Real Soup on the Go Heinz Soup Cups. Real Soup on the Go ‘Grab your soup, sandwich or salad and watch entertaining short films bristling with originality, creativity, style and wit. Essential viewing while eating.’ ‘Grab your soup, sandwich or salad and watch entertaining short films bristling with originality, creativity, style and wit. Essential viewing while eating.’

24 23 Heinz Soup Cups Shorts 2 ‘Are you always on the go? Only a few minutes to sit down at your PC and enjoy your lunch? Staring at the screen, searching for some kind of entertainment? Go and log on to ‘Heinz Soup Cup Shorts’ at www.heinz.co.uk/soupcupshorts for a month of entertaining short films. ‘Are you always on the go? Only a few minutes to sit down at your PC and enjoy your lunch? Staring at the screen, searching for some kind of entertainment? Go and log on to ‘Heinz Soup Cup Shorts’ at www.heinz.co.uk/soupcupshorts for a month of entertaining short films. www.heinz.co.uk/soupcupshorts

25 24 Heinz Soup Cup Shorts 3 ‘So to make lunchtime a bit more exciting, Heinz launched a nationwide short film competition back in September, inviting short film entries on the theme of ‘Go!’ Heinz had entries, ranging from film schools and universities, to wannabe film makers from all industries across Britain. ‘So to make lunchtime a bit more exciting, Heinz launched a nationwide short film competition back in September, inviting short film entries on the theme of ‘Go!’ Heinz had entries, ranging from film schools and universities, to wannabe film makers from all industries across Britain. Each film runs for up to 7 minutes in length and the best entries have been chosen and will be played leading up to Christmas, to entertain the nation during its lunch break. Each film runs for up to 7 minutes in length and the best entries have been chosen and will be played leading up to Christmas, to entertain the nation during its lunch break. The winning entry will be selected by a panel of judges whose decision will take into account audience feedback.’ The winning entry will be selected by a panel of judges whose decision will take into account audience feedback.’

26 25 Heinz Soup Cup Shorts 4 ‘Independent research states that on average, office workers are now just taking 7 minutes for their lunch break and it’s usually at their PC. Lunch consists of a sandwich or a quick snack, like soup, whilst surfing the internet!’ ‘Independent research states that on average, office workers are now just taking 7 minutes for their lunch break and it’s usually at their PC. Lunch consists of a sandwich or a quick snack, like soup, whilst surfing the internet!’ This advertisement feature was ALL research-based! This advertisement feature was ALL research-based! Assignment – find more examples … Assignment – find more examples …


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