1 Micro Fibre Dyeing Micro Fibre Dyeing Micro Fibre Dyeing By Roy Gordon
2 Dyeing 1Key IssuesThe 2 most important factors in dyeing polyester microfibres.Build-up properties.Washfastness.BUILD-UPWASHFASTNESS1 Depth of shade X 1/ fibre dpf.Finer fibres need more dye.2 Dye buildup properties can vary with finer fibres.DYE & AUXILIARYSELECTION1 High dye applications needed.2 Washfastness relates to surface dye. Microfibres have very high surface area.ProblemsCausesRemedies
3 Dyeing 2 Various factors POTENTIAL CAUSES REMEDIES PROBLEMS Dye uptake at lower temperatures.JCommence dyeing at lower starttemperatures.LEVEL DYEINGFaster dye uptake rate.JUse slower rate of temperature rise up totop temperature.Residues from preparation steps.JUse of auxiliaries to level and protectfrom residues.Poor penetration of high twist yarns onJCompatible dye combinations.high density fabric.CREASING &Poor relaxed shrinkage in preparation.JControl over the preparation process.CROWS FEETRapid temperature rise at critical heatingJUse slower rate of temperature rise up toand cooling phases.top temperature.JUse of anticrease auxiliaries.LIGHTFASTNESSHigh surface area exposed to light.JCareful selection of Dyes.JUse of UV absorbers to reduce fading.Microfibre mixed with conventionalJDye selectionfibres.DYE COVERAGEFlat and textured yarns combined.JDyeing process to improve leveling.Filaments of varying cross section.JUse of auxiliaries to improve dyeing.Inadequate preparation leaving spinJGood quality preparation.ABRASIONfinish, oils, oligomer and WR residues.MARKSIncorrect machine type.JCorrect machine type usage.JDyeing lubricant to reduce abrasion.
4 Dyeing 3. Process Microfibre Dyeing Process: Takes account of… Rapid strike and exhaustion on Microfibres.Greater rate and extent of shrinkage.Lower temperature exhaustion and shrinkage,relative to conventional fibres.Rate of rise depends on the machineliquor interchange and dye type.Temp13011090705090oC70oC50oC130oC x 45’2o/min1o/min3o/minConventionalMicrofibre50 oCLoad Auxiliaries and pump.Load buffer and dyes.Raise temperature - Rate 1.Raise temperature - Rate 2.Hold at Top Temperature.Cool at Rate 1.Hot 90oCUse Rate’s 1 & 2.RC or 90-95oC.RinseDrop cold, < 55oC.Tip : Plait down fabric evenly
5 Dyeing 4.1Auxiliaries 1Microfibre Dyeing Auxiliaries: Must take account of....Fibre variations in dpf, cross section, texturising and polymer type.Variations in dye types, helping to balance strike and migration.The inevitable carry-over of residues and contamination into the dye bath.NEARGAL HP-MF Dispersant and levelling agent.New Levels without retarding, so perfect for micofibres.Oligomer dispersant, so minimal WR problems.Proven in yarn package dyeing.( See later presentation.)LUBRIFIL LAF Emulsifier, anticrease and compatibiliser.Emulsifies de dusting agents and residual oils.Enhances Heat Setting efficiency.Reduces creasing and abrasion.A problem solver.
6 Dyeing 4.2Auxiliaries 2NAISTAT 1350 Oil scavenger, anticrease, lubricant, finishing agent.High affinity for polyester allows displacement ofresidual oils from polyester.Powerful lubricity to reduce abrasion and creases.Durable finish; antistat, soil release, soft andhydrophilic.NEARCHEL TMC High Temperature stable sequesterant.Suitable for preparation and bleaching.Disaggregates dyes for penetration.Powerful metal binding, even at high temperatures.MATEXIL LN-RD High activity levelling agent.For light or problem shades.Success over Lyogen DMF, Levenol, Sunsalt LM7.
8 Tip : Use high fabric rope speeds (@ 260 m/m) Dyeing 4.4Auxiliaries 3Some RecipesTip : Use high fabric rope speeds 260 m/m)Basic(For blends or 100% polyester.)NEARGAL DN – 1 g/lLUBRIFIL LAF g/lNEARCHEL TMC g/lNEARGAL SD-PE 1 g/lProblem shades(For 100% polyester.)NEARGAL DN – 1 g/lNEARGAL HP-MF New 1.5 g/lLUBRIFIL LAF g/lNEARCHEL TMC g/lProblem fabrics(For 100% polyester.)NEARGAL DN – 1 g/lNAISTAT g/lNEARCHEL TMC g/lNEARGAL SD-PE g/lProblem fabrics and shades(For 100% polyester.)NEARGAL DN g/lNEARGAL HP-MF New 1.5 g/lNAISTAT g/lNEARCHEL TMC g/l
9 Dyeing 5.1Dyes : GeneralMicrofibre Dye Selection: Must take account of....Compatibility and suitability for the application.The wash fastness requirements on medium to heavy shades.The rapid buildup and levelling problems on fine fibres.The mixture of fibre type in many microfibres.Pales shades B class dyes give :…- the best levelness and coverage.- compatibility in trichromatic shades.Medium / Heavy C class dyes give :…- good levelness and coverage.- good general compatibility.- all round fastness properties.All dye variations or incompatibilities areexaggerated when dyeing Microfibres.
10 orientation or crystallinity, texturing, or finishing agents. Dyeing 5.2BuildupColour Build-up “rule of thumb”: fine filaments dye light, course filaments dye dark.Fothergills equation.(in 1944)C W2C2 W1C1 & C2 = % dye applied.W1 & W2 = DPF of fibrils.=This equation does not take account of delustering agents, fibre cross section,orientation or crystallinity, texturing, or finishing agents.
11 Dyeing 5.3FastnessLight Fastness “rule of thumb”: reductions of 0.5 to 1.5 point for Micro vs regular fibre.The high surface area exposes more dye to UV light, thus reducing light fastness.Testing : Xenotest vs wool standards.ISO 105 B02 InternationalBS B02 BritishDIN GermanThis may restrict dye selection, especially for sportswear.Trevira Finesse 5Trevira Micronesse 4-5Coolmax ??UV absorbers can be added to the disperse dyebathfor the highest standards.
12 Dyeing 5.4 Fastness Wash Fastness : a constant problem. THE CAUSES ? High surface area, means a greater amount of surface dye present.Weight Reduced fibres have oligomer residues that can reduce fastness.Weight Reduced fibres have a rough surface that can act as a store for oligomer and surface dye.WR on delusted fibres leave pores, that act as reservoirs of surface dye.Spandex Microfibre may have silicone residues that reduce fastness.THE REMEDIES ?A very effective wash after Weight Reduction is essential.A very effective high temperature Reduction Clear and wash is essential.A double Reduction Clear may be required.Use of wetting, penetrating and dispersing auxiliaries in both WR wash and RC.
13 Reduction Clear NEARGAL DN @ 920C x 20’ NEARGAL DN 0.5 g/l The WR process creates a rough semi-porous fibre surface, which can trap large amounts of surface dye. The high surface area alone creates wash fastness problems for microfibres.NEARGAL DNHigh performance dispersing agent for Oligomer and Dye.Proven performance as a machine cleaner and dispersant.NEARCLEAR VLPowerful wetter, dispersant, emulsifier and detergent.Proven performance in Reduction ClearLifts surface dye and disperses residues.@ 920C x 20’ NEARGAL DN 0.5 g/lNEARCLEAR VL g/l(& when ready to give up, add ..) NEARPON KR 0.3 g/l
14 Dyeing 5.5 Dyes : The best dyes to use on polyester are : Those with Identical Exhaustion RatesEasy clearing dyes : egDiester dyesAzo-Thiophene dyes
15 NEARGAL LS-PA with acid dyes. Dyeing 6Conjugates :With certain types ofconjugate filament….The compliment or core polymer fibrils may “grin” throughthe shade, creating a streaky, speckled and uneven look.This mainly occurs where :- the compliment fibril is only shocked (by swelling or physicalcracking) rather than dissolving.- the complimentary fibril is a major part.- the conjugate microfibre is a major component of the fabric.- the nylon component is not structurally covered by polyester.Regain solidity of shade by overdyeing with acid dyes.NEARGAL LS-PA with acid dyes.
16 Bodied Finish Softener Example 1Light Weight SilkDesize / Scour& RelaxPre Heat SetWeight ReduceDyeFinish withDry Mild SetSimple ProcessWash offRCPre-steam if possible.Pad NAISTAT @ 2%120oC then Set at 160oC x 30”.Wash and scour withNEARFIL FAC 0.3 g/lNEARPON KR 1 g/lNEARCHEL TMC 0.5 g/lRinse, and refill.Weight Reduce to calculated %WR.Use accelerant. ~ 1 g/l90 C, then 95C withNEARCLEAR VL 0.5 g/lHot rinse again until neutral.Dye with NEARGAL DN 1 g/lNEARGAL SD-PE levelling problems.RC as for WR Washing.Finish by 60% PUNEARFINISH M88 20 g/l120oC then Set at 160oC x 40”.Heat Set improverOil Scorch ProtectorSilicone & Set oilScour systemDispersing andWashing system.Dispersing, Levellingand Sequestering.Bodied Finish Softener
17 Soft hydrophIlic, soil release Example 2Sports Wear - SpandexNormal ProcessWash, scour and relax withNEARFIL FAC 0.2 g/lNEARPON KR 1 g/lNEARCHEL TMC 0.5 g/lLUBRIFIL LAF 1.5 g/lRinse, and refill.Pad NAISTAT @ 2%120oC then Set at 195oC x 1’.Dye with NEARGAL DN 1 g/lNEARGAL SD-PE leveling problems.90 C, then 90 C withNEARCLEAR VL 0.5 g/lHot rinse againFinish by 80oCNAISTAT % owf120oC then Set at 160oC x 40’.Desize / Scour& RelaxHeat Set improverOil Scorch ProtectorSilicone & Set oilScour systemPre Heat SetDispersing andWashing system.DyeRCDispersing, Levellingand Sequestering.Finish withDry Mild SetSoft hydrophIlic, soil releaseantistatic finish.
18 The Tool Kit The Products The Process The Advantage NEARFIL FAC Deaeration No foam wetting.LUBRIFIL LAF Heat Setting Efficient & AntiscorchScour & Dye Scour-Dye & AnticreaseNEARPON KR Scour Efficient CleaningNEARCHEL TMC Scour Removal of soapsDyeing DisaggregatorNEARCAND LT 75 Setting & Finish Reduce scorchingBleach White nylonNEARGAL DN Dyeing Dispersant and cleaner.NEARGAL SD-PE Dyeing Dispersant & LevellerNAISTAT Heat Setting Efficient & AntiscorchFinishing Hydrophilic, soil releaseNEARFINISH CF 511 Finishing Hydrophilic, elasticNEARSOPHT BF100 Finishing Full body cationic.NEARFINISH M88 Finishing Bodied effect.