Presentation on theme: "Topic C1. Reducing emissions and enhancing removals (land-use change, fire, drainage) J Boone Kauffman and Daniel Murdiyarso."— Presentation transcript:
Topic C1. Reducing emissions and enhancing removals (land-use change, fire, drainage) J Boone Kauffman and Daniel Murdiyarso
Topic C1. Slide 2 of 21 Implementing mitigation (emissions reduction) strategies in forests Why it is important to act now? Intact/Restored ecosystems: are more buffered (resistant) to collapse or decline with a changing climate or other stresses; have a higher degree of resilience – the capacity to recover following stress or disturbance; will provide more ecosystem services – e.g. biodiversity, water quality, aesthetics and carbon storage; may be of value and interest for carbon financing for climate change mitigation
Topic C1. Slide 3 of 21 Carbon sequestration is an ecosystem service that has not received value until recently Net primary productivity (NPP) - The net amount of fixed C in organic matter by photosynthesis after the needs of the plant have been met. GPP- Respiration = NPP About 95% of CO 2 emissions would occur if humans did not exist on Earth - natural decay of plant materials is about 220 billion tonnes of CO 2 each year.
Topic C1. Slide 4 of 21 Tropical forested wetlands are ecosystems that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support a prevalence of forest vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions (e.g. mangroves, freshwater swamps, floodplain forests).
Topic C1. Slide 5 of 21 How much carbon can be found in forests? Donato et al. 2011, Kauffman et al. In press, Kauffman et al 2003.
Topic C1. Slide 6 of 21 An example of forest carbon stocks: Tropical forests and mangroves of Costa Rica Dry Moist Wet Rainforest Mangrove Kauffman et al. (In press). 1000 Mg/ha 400 Mg/ha
Topic C1. Slide 7 of 21 Kauffman et al. (2014) Ecological Applications
Topic C1. Slide 8 of 21 We need to determine the pathways and processes of emissions
Topic C1. Slide 9 of 21 Currently, on average, between 1-7% of blue carbon sinks are being lost annually Upstream disruptionsAquaculture Rice/Agriculture Road development/ hydrological disruptions Coastal development
Topic C1. Slide 10 of 21 Currently, the impacts of land use/land cover change are impacting biodiversity to a much greater extent than global climate change
Topic C1. Slide 11 of 21 Global loss of blue carbon sinks (total % loss and annual rate of loss) Global area (km 2 )Global lossAnnual rate of ecosystem loss (%)/year References Mangroves 137,760-152-361 20% (since 1980s) 30–50% (since 1940s) 0.7–3%Valiela et al. (2001); Alongi (2002); FAO (2007); Spalding et al. (2010) Sea grass 177,000–600,000 50% (since 1990s)~7%Costanza et al. (1997); Duarte et al. (2005); Waycott et al. (2009) Salt marshes 20,000–400,000 Salt marshes 25% (since 1800s) 1–2%Bridgham et al. (2006); Duarte et al. (2008) Area of the worlds forests = 39 million km (Pan et al. 2011) Adapted from Mcleod et al. ( 2011)
Topic C1. Slide 12 of 21 How to determine emissions from land-use/land-cover change Gain-loss method Stock difference method
Topic C1. Slide 13 of 21 Stock difference method (C t2 – C t1 ) (t 2 – t 1 ) ΔC = annual carbon stock change in the pool C t1 = carbon stock in the pool at time t 1 C t2 = carbon stock in the pool at time t 2 C stock at time 1 C stock at time 2 ΔC =
Topic C1. Slide 14 of 21 Donato et al. 2012; Hughes et al. 2000; Kauffman et al. 2013; Pendleton et al. 2013; Kauffman et al. In press.
Topic C1. Slide 15 of 21 Gain-loss method ΔC = ΔC G – ΔC L ΔC = annual carbon stock change in the pool ΔC G = annual gain of carbon, tonnes ΔC L = annual loss of carbon, tonnes C stock C uptake via growth Disturbance Harvest Emissions
Topic C1. Slide 16 of 21 Example of emissions from peat swamp forests and oil palm plantations – Tanjung Puting National Park, Indonesia (Novita 2015) Peat net annual balance of GHG in the primary forest and oil palm plantations from tropical peatlands of Tanjung Puting Land-use system CO 2 CH 4 N2ON2OGHG total Forest15.37±1.15.34±1.00.13±0.0920.84 ± 0.5 OP14.53±0.80.15±0.21.5±0.216.18 ± 0.3 Contribution (%) of CO2, CH4 and N2O to total GHG emissions from primary forest and oil palm plantations in Tanjung Putting (from Novita PhD thesis 2015).
In addition to C stocks, there exists unique biodiversity values in tropical wetlands Topic C1. Slide 17 of 21
Topic C1. Slide 18 of 21 Partial listing of co-benefits or ecosystem services that would be derived from forests managed under a REDD+ strategy ECOSYSTEM SERVICE/CO-BENEFITFOREST TYPE Poverty alleviationAll Enhanced biodiversityAll Tropical storm protection (cyclones)Mangroves, marshes Water qualityAll Water quantityUpland forest Timing of stream flowUpland forests Fisheries habitat protection/enhancement All, particularly mangroves, riparian zones marshes Non-timber forest productsAll EcotourismAll AestheticsAll Enhancement of resilience/ adaptation to climate change All
Topic C1. Slide 19 of 21 Why are tropical forested wetlands attractive for REDD+ and other NAMAs? Conservation of biodiversity Coastal zone protection Fisheries Loss of livelihoods and culture Erosion Degradation of adjacent communities (sea grass and coral reefs) Carbon emissions/loss of C sinks Loss of other ecosystem services.
Topic C1. Slide 20 of 21 References Donato DC, Kauffman JB, Murdiyarso D, Kurnianto S, Stidham M, and Kanninen M. 2011. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nature Geosciences 4:293–297. doi: 10.1038/NGEO1123. Howard J, Hoyt, S, Isensee K, Telszewski M, Pidgeon E (eds.). 2014. Coastal Blue Carbon: Methods for assessing carbon stocks and emissions factors in mangroves, tidal salt marshes,and seagrasses. Arlington, Virginia, USA: Conservation International, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, International Union for Conservation of Nature. [IPCC] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2003. Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change, and forestry. Penman J, Gytarsky M, Hiraishi T, Krug Thelma, Kruger D, Pipatti R, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K, et al, eds. Japan: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. Kauffman JB and Donato DC. 2012. Protocols for the Measurement, Monitoring, & Reporting of Structure, Biomass and Carbon Stocks in Mangrove Forests. Working Paper 86. Bogor: Center for International Forest Research. Kauffman JB, Heider C, Norfolk J, Payton F. 2014. Carbon Stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic. Ecological Applications 24:518–527. Pendleton L, Donato DC, Crooks S, Murray BC, Jenkins WJ, Sifleet S, Baldera A, Craft C, Fourqurean JW, Kauffman JB, et al. 2012. Estimating global ‘‘blue carbon’’ emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems. PLoS ONE 7(9): e43542.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043542 [UNEP] United Nations Environment Programme. 2014. The Importance of Mangroves to People: A Call to Action. van Bochove J, Sullivan E, Nakamura T, eds. Cambridge: United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge.
The Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Program (SWAMP) is a collaborative effort by CIFOR, the USDA Forest Service, and the Oregon State University with support from USAID. How to cite this file Kauffman JB and Murdiyarso D. 2015. Reducing emissions and enhancing removals [PowerPoint presentation]. In: SWAMP toolbox: Theme C section C1. Retrieved from Photo credit Boone Kauffman/Oregon State University, Daniel Murdiyarso/CIFOR, Nanang Sujana/CIFOR, Rupesh/CIFOR Thank you