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The Axial Skeleton Chapter 8. Learning Targets 1- Name the regions of the vertebral column, and number of vertebrae in each segment 2- Identify the distinguishing.

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Presentation on theme: "The Axial Skeleton Chapter 8. Learning Targets 1- Name the regions of the vertebral column, and number of vertebrae in each segment 2- Identify the distinguishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Axial Skeleton Chapter 8

2 Learning Targets 1- Name the regions of the vertebral column, and number of vertebrae in each segment 2- Identify the distinguishing characteristics of vertebrae from each spinal column segment

3 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Divisions of the Skeletal System

4 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Divisions of the Skeletal System

5 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column Also called the spine, backbone, or spinal column Functions to: ◦Protect the spinal cord ◦Support the head ◦Serve as a point of attachment for the ribs, pelvic girdle, and muscles The vertebral column is curved to varying degrees in different locations ◦Curves increase the column strength ◦Help maintain balance in the upright position ◦Absorb shocks during walking, and help protect the vertebrae from fracture

6 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column

7 Bones of the Spine

8 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column Various conditions may exaggerate the normal curves of the vertebral column ◦Kyphosis ◦Lordosis ◦Scoliosis Composed of a series of bones called vertebrae (Adult=26) ◦7 cervical are in the neck region ◦12 thoracic are posterior to the thoracic cavity ◦5 lumbar support the lower back ◦1 sacrum consists of five fused sacral vertebrae ◦1 coccyx consists of four fused coccygeal vertebrae

9 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column

10 Overview of vertebral column

11 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column (Intervertebral Discs) Found between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae Functions to: ◦Form strong joints ◦Permit various movements of the vertebral column ◦Absorb vertical shock Vertebrae typically consist of: ◦A Body (weight bearing) ◦A vertebral arch (surrounds the spinal cord) ◦Several processes (points of attachment for muscles)

12 Take out your notebook and lay-out your notes as follows (use the whole page): FeatureCervicalthoracicLumbar General Location Body Foreman Spinous process Transverse process

13 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column (Regions) Cervical Region ◦Cervical vertebrae (C1–C7) ◦The atlas (C1) is the first cervical vertebra ◦The axis (C2) is the second cervical vertebra Thoracic Region ◦Thoracic vertebrae (T1–T12) ◦Articulate with the ribs Lumbar Region ◦Lumbar vertebrae (L1–L5) ◦Provide for the attachment of the large back muscles Sacrum ◦The sacrum is a triangular bone formed by the union of five sacral vertebrae (S1–S5) ◦Serves as a strong foundation for the pelvic girdle Coccyx ◦The coccyx, like the sacrum, is triangular in shape ◦It is formed by the fusion of usually 3-5 coccygeal vertebrae

14 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column-a look at terms

15 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column-cervical

16 Cervical Vertebrae FeatureCervicalthoracicLumbar General Location Neck Body-- Foreman Transverse and vertebral Spinous process Slender and bifid Transverse process small

17 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column-cervical

18 Diagram and label C1 (atlas) Go to the link (“labeling the vertebrae”) found in Quia. 1. On the right hand side of the page, choose “Atlas C1 (superior view).” 2. Following the instructions, diagram and label the atlas. 3. Go to “test yourself” and test for understanding. 4. If you finish before your peers, work on the “axis.”

19 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column-thoracic

20 Thoracic Vertebrae FeatureCervicalthoracicLumbar General Location NeckChest Body-- Heart-shaped Foreman Transverse and vertebral Vertebral Spinous process Slender and bifid Long and slender-points inferiorly Transverse process small10/12 have facets for rib articulations

21 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column-thoracic

22 Diagram and label C1 (atlas) Go to the link (“labeling the vertebrae”) found in Quia. 1. On the right hand side of the page, choose “Thoracic vertebra(superior view).” 2. Following the instructions, diagram and label the atlas. 3. Go to “test yourself” and test for understanding. 4. If you finish before your peers, work on the “Thoracic vertebra inferior and lateral views.”

23 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column-lumbar

24 Lumbar Vertebrae FeatureCervicalthoracicLumbar General Location NeckChestLower back Body-- Heart-shapedOval-shaped Foreman Transverse and vertebral VertebralVertebral (smaller) Spinous process Slender and bifid Long and slender-points inferiorly Broad, flat, blunt Transverse process small10/12 have facets for rib articulations Short, narrower, not articular facets

25 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vertebral Column-sacrum and coccyx


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