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Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Burton's Microbiology for the Health Sciences Chapter 18. Viral Infections
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 18 Outline Introduction How do Viruses Cause Disease? Infectious Diseases of the Skin Viral Infections of the Ears Viral Infections of the Eyes Viral Infections of the Respiratory System Viral Infections of the Oral Region Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract Viral Infections of the Genitourinary System Viral Infections of the Circulatory System Viral Infections of the Central Nervous System Recap of Major Viral Infections of Humans Appropriate Therapy for Viral Infections
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins How Do Viruses Cause Disease? Viruses multiply within host cells. It is during their escape from those cells – either by cell lysis or budding – that the host cells are destroyed. This cell destruction leads to most of the symptoms of a viral infection, which vary depending upon the location of the infection.
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Infections of the Skin Chickenpox and Shingles –Varicella-zoster virus (a DNA virus which is also known as human herpesvirus 3) German Measles (Rubella) –Rubella virus, an RNA virus Measles (Hard Measles, Rubeola) –Measles (rubeola) virus, an RNA virus Monkeypox – Monkeypox virus, a DNA virus Smallpox –2 strains of variola virus (variola minor and variola major), a DNA virus Warts –At least 70 different types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), DNA viruses
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Infections of the Eyes Adenoviral conjunctitivis and keratoconjunctivitis – caused by various types of adenoviruses Herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses can also cause keratoconjunctivitis. Hemorrhagic conjunctivitis – caused by adenoviruses and enteroviruses People with viral infections (e.g, cold sores) should wash their hands thoroughly before inserting or removing contact lenses or otherwise touching their eyes.
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Infections of the Upper Respiratory Tract The Common Cold (Acute Viral Rhinitis, Acute Coryza) –Many different viruses cause colds. –Rhinoviruses (more than 100 serotypes) are the major cause in adults. –Other cold-causing viruses include coronaviruses, parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syuncytial virus (RSV), influenza viruses, adenoviruses, and enteroviruses. –Transmission occurs via respiratory secretions by way of hands and fomites or direct contact with or inhalation of airborne droplets.
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Infections of the Lower Respiratory Tract Acute, Febrile, Viral Respiratory Disease –Caused by parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, rhinoviruses, certain coronaviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses; transmission occurs via direct oral contact or by droplets Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) –Avian influenza virus type A; 3 prominent subtypes – H5, H7, H9; bird to human transmission occurs via contact with infected poultry or contaminated surfaces Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) –Caused by at least 5 different hantaviruses (Sin Nombre, Bayou, Black Creek Canal, New York-1 Monongahela); transmission occurs via inhalation of aerosolized rodent feces, urine, and saliva
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Infections of the Lower Respiratory Tract, cont. Influenza, Flu –Influenza viruses, types A, B, and C; RNA viruses; transmission is via infected humans; pigs and birds also serve as reservoirs Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) –SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (shown here) –Transmission occurs via infected individuals by respiratory droplets, or by touching the mouth, nose, or eye after touching a contaminated surface or object
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Infections of the Oral Region Cold Sores (Fever Blisters, Herpes Labialis) – Usually caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV- 1), but can be caused by herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) – DNA viruses in the family Herpesviridae – Either HSV-1 or HSV-2 can also infect the genital tract, although genital herpes infections are most often caused by HSV-2
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cold Sore Caused by Herpes Simplex
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Infections of the GI Tract Viral Gastroenteritis (Viral Enteritis, Viral Diarrhea) –The most common viruses infecting children in their first years of life are enteric adenoviruses, astroviruses, caliciviruses, and rotaviruses. –Viruses infecting children and adults include norovirus-like viruses and rotaviruses. –Transmission occurs via infected humans, most often by way of the fecal-oral route; possibly from contaminated water and shellfish.
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Most Common Types of Viral Hepatitis Type A Hepatitis (HAV Infection, Infectious Hepatitis, Epidemic Hepatitis) –Hepatitis A virus (HAV); a linear ssRNA virus –Fecal-oral transmission Type B Hepatitis (HBV Infection, Serum Hepatitis) –Hepatitis B virus (HBV); an enveloped, circular dsDNA virus –Sexual transmission or household contact with an infected person; injected drug use; tattooing; needlesticks Type C Hepatitis (HCV Infection, Non-A Non-B Hepatitis) –Hepatitis C virus (HCV); an enveloped, linear ssRNA virus –Primarily parenterally transmitted; rarely sexually Type D Hepatitis (HDV Infection, Delta Hepatitis) –Hepatitis D virus (HDV, delta virus); an enveloped, circular ssRNA viral satellite; coinfection with HBV is necessary –Exposure to infected blood and body fluids, etc.
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Most Common Types of Viral Hepatitis, cont. Type E Hepatitis –Hepatitis E virus (HEV); a nonenveloped, ssRNA virus –Fecal-oral transmission; primarily fecally contaminated drinking water; also person-to-person Type G Hepatitis –Hepatitis G virus (HGV); a linear ssRNA virus –Parenteral transmission
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral STDs Anogenital Herpes Viral Infections (Genital Herpes) –Usually caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV- 2); occasionally by HSV-1 –Transmission occurs via infected humans by direct sexual contact; oral-genital, oral-anal, or anal-genital contact when lesions are present Genital Warts (Genital Papillomatosis, Condyloma Acuminatum) –Human papillomaviruses (HPV); DNA viruses –Transmission occurs via infected humans by direct contact, usually sexual –Genital warts can become malignant
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Infections of the Circulatory System Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) –Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); 2 types - HIV- 1 (most common) and HIV-2; ssRNA viruses –Transmission occurs via infected humans, by direct sexual contact; contaminated needles/syringes; transfusion of contaminated blood; transplacental transfer from mother to child; transplantation of HIV- infected tissues or organs; needlestick, scalpel, and broken glass injuries
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Infections of the Circulatory System, cont. Infectious Mononucleosis( “Mono,” “Kissing Disease”) –Caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is also known as human herpesvirus 4; a DNA virus in the family Herpesviridae –Transmission occurs via infected humans, person-to- person, direct contact with saliva Mumps (Infectious Parotitis) –Caused by mumps virus; an RNA virus –Transmission occurs via infected humans by droplet spread and direct contact with saliva
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Hemorrhagic Diseases (Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers) Caused by many different viruses, including dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa virus, Ebola virus, and Marburg virus Ebola and Marburg viruses are extremely large filamentous viruses Infected humans serve as reservoirs; infected African green monkeys also serve as reservoirs in Marburg infection Transmission is person-to-person via direct contact with infected blood, secretions, internal organs, or semen; also needlestick
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Infections of the CNS Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis –Caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) –Transmission occurs via exposure to mouse urine, droppings, saliva, or nesting materials Poliomyelitis (Polio, Infantile Paralysis) –Caused by polioviruses; RNA viruses –Transmission is person-to-person, primarily via the fecal-oral route; also throat secretions
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Viral Infections of the CNS, cont. Rabies –Caused by rabies virus; a bullet-shaped, enveloped RNA virus –Many reservoirs, including dogs, foxes, coyotes, wolves, jackals, skunks, raccoons, mongooses, bats –Transmission occurs via the bite of a rabid animal which introduces virus-laden saliva; airborne transmission from bats in caves also occurs Viral Meningitis (Aseptic Meningitis, Abacterial Meningitis) –Caused by many different viruses
Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Selected Arthropodborne Viral Encephalitides of the United States DiseaseReservoirsVectors Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) Birds, horses Aedes, Coquilletidia, Culex, and Culiseta mosquitoes California EncephalitisRodents, rabbits Aedes and Culex mosquitoes LaCrosse EncephalitisChipmunks, squirrelsAedes mosquitoes St. Louis EncephalitisBirdsCulex mosquitoes West Nile Virus Encephalitis Birds, perhaps horsesCulex mosquitoes Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) Birds, horses Aedes and Culex mosquitoes
Single-stranded DNA, non-enveloped –Parvoviridae Human parvovirus Fifth disease Anemia.
Warm Up March 2 nd, )Viruses are non-_______. They also will attack and use other organisms to reproduce. What good could a virus do? 2)What is a.
VIRAL DISEASES. Chickenpox Also known as varicella Very contagious disease spread by air by infected people when sneezing or coughing and by contact through.
Viruses “an intracellular, infectious parasite capable of living and replicating only in living cells”
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Virus Families 1.Single-stranded DNA, nonenveloped viruses, polyhedral capsid.
Classification of Medically Important Two components of virus are used in classification : 1. Molecular weight & structure of nucleic acid 2.
Viruses and Prions. RNA Viruses Picornaviruses Poliomyelitis –Fecal-oral and pharyngeal transmission –Attacks NS and can cause paralysis –Vaccine has.
1 Pathogenic Viruses Name of virus what family it belongs to what disease it causes, organ system affected DNA or RNA? Route of transmission; reservoirs,
Identification of virus Prepared by: Putri Shareen Binti Rosman.
Viral Diseases. Common Cold Causes: 200+ viruses can cause it, including rhinoviruses No evidence for weather causing a cold Symptoms: Runny.
Sequential Steps in Viral Infection Entry Spread Shedding Transmission Propagation Three Problems Viruses must solve: Reproduction Spread Evasion of Host.
Viruses. Are Viruses Living Things? Characteristics of Living things are… Made of cells Can reproduce Based on a universal genetic code Grow and develop.
VIRUSES & DISEASES. Viral Transmission Viruses can be transmitted in many different ways: Respiratory (coughing, sneezing, etc.) Blood, body fluids,
Virus. What is a Virus? Non living disease causing agent All viruses enter living cells and use the host cell to replicate Composed of: –Genetic Material.
Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly,
Prions “small proteinaceous infectious agents without a nucleic acid genome……produce spongiform encephalopathies”
VIRUSES. CONSIDERED NON-LIVING VIRUSES CANNOT PRODUCE THEIR OWN ENERGY AND CANNOT REPRODUCE ON ITS OWN VIRUSES DEPEND ON A HOST CELL TO MULTIPLY.
Chapter 13-Viruses. General Characteristics of all viruses Contain a single type of nucleic acid Contain a protein coat Obligate intracellular parasites.
Prions Infectious proteins Inherited and transmissible by ingestion, transplant, and surgical instruments Spongiform encephalopathies: Sheep scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jakob.
HIV Influenza West Nile THE. What is a Virus? Virus ~ Infectious agent made up of a core of nucleic acid and a protein coat. Virus = Poison Not a living.
OBJECTIVE 6 TERMS : DISEASE TRASNMISSION TERMS YOU SHOULD KNOW MAU&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zTWZtElv.
Chapter 14: Animal Viruses. How do animal viruses differ from bacterial viruses? Attachment or entry into the cell Replication of viral nucleic acid (remember.
Common Cold M Most common infection C Caused by group of viruses called: * Rhinoviruses – RNA viruses V Virus infects the cells of the Respiratory tract.
Viruses. Which Kingdom? Viruses They are considered “lifeless”…why? They can NOT carry out metabolic and reproductive functions alone. They require a.
Mechanism of disease transmission: There are 3 actions (step) for disease transmission: 1. Escape of the agent from the source or reservoir 2. Conveyance.
Plate 85 Viral Diseases of the Respiratory System.
✚ Pathogen: Lyme Disease General Info:: Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. Vector: The black legged deer tick.
VIROLOGY The Study of Viruses. Virology 1.Definition: A submicroscopic acellular pathogen composed only of protein and one type of nucleic acid.
VIRAL SHAPES. VIRUSES There are presently 20 recognized families of viruses that affect humans and/or animals CLASSIFIED BY: –By whether they contain.
Viral Infections: an overview Dr. Meg-angela Christi Amores.
DR. MOHAMMED ARIF. ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR. CONSULTANT VIROLOGIST. HEAD OF THE VIROLOGY UNIT. Medical virology, Laboratory session-1.
Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 10 Infection Control.
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Textbook for Nursing Assistants Chapter 8: Bloodborne and Airborne Pathogens.
Prof. Dalia M. Mohsen Prof. In Microbiology. Viral the level of order and follows as thus, with the taxon suffixes classification starts at given in italics:
Viral & Bacterial Diseases Messana Science 8 Chapter 25.
Chapter 13-Viruses of Bacteria. General Characteristics of all viruses Contain a single type of nucleic acid Contain a protein coat Obligate intracellular.
Viruses: Edward Jenner first introduced term “virus” Dmitri Ivanosky in 1890 discovered virus for first time Virus is latin word derived from venom meaning.
Viruses. Tobacco mosaic virus stunts the growth of tobacco plants and gives their leaves a mottled, mosaic coloration. Studied as early as 1883 by Adolf.
Viruses Viruses are very small Anatomy of a Virus.
Fahareen-Binta-Mosharraf MNS. Disease-causing viruses often grouped by their route of transmission Enteric viruses Generally transmitted via fecal-oral.
Viral STIs By Amber Riley and Courtney Rosenkrantz.
Virology – Pathogenesis of viral infections JU- 2 nd Year Medical Students By Dr Hamed AlZoubi – Microbiology and Immunology Department – Mutah University.
Chapter 18. 1796 – Edward Jenner developed the smallpox vaccine 1897 – Beijerinck coined the term “virus” meaning poison 1935 – Wendell Stanley.
HOW DO INFECTIOUS DISEASES SPREAD FROM PERSON TO PERSON? Viruses, Bacteria, and Your Health.
Virology. Basics of Virology How are viruses transmitted from host to host? How does a virus ▫Enter the body? ▫Enter a host cell? ▫Replicate? ▫Exit the.
Medically Important Viruses. Viruses obligate parasites infect animals, plants, & other microbes All DNA viruses are double stranded except for parvoviruses,
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