2Types of Mixtures 1. Solutions AKA Homogeneous Mixtures/can only be separated by evaporationAtoms, molecules, or ions are thoroughly mixed, resulting in a mixture that has the same composition and properties throughoutMade by having one substance dissolved into anotherSoluble: capable of being dissolvedInsoluble: unable of being dissolved
3Components of solutions Solvent: the dissolving mediumWater is the universal solvent (aqueous solutions or hydrated solutions)Alcohol is also used frequently as solvent (tinctures)Solvent is greatest quantitySolute: the substance that is dissolvedUsually designated as the component that is of lesser quantityOnce dissolved, the solute particles can no longer be seen (usually less than 1 nm in diameter)As long as conditions do not change, solutes will remain in solvent indefinitely
4Types of solutions Gas-gas: air Gas-liquid: carbon dioxide and water (pop)Liquid-liquid: fruit juiceLiquid-solid: dental amalgamSolid-liquid: sugar waterSolid-solid: alloys
5SuspensionsOccur when particles are too large to remain in the solvent unless constantly agitatedParticles are usually over 1000nm in diameterWould be identified as heterogeneous mixtureCan be separated by a filter
63. Colloid Particles are intermediate of solutes and suspensions Particles are between nmParticles become dispersed in a dispersing medium (think fog)See table 2 page 404 for ex.Can not be filtered, but will scatter light (tyndall effect)Also see brownian motion (dust particles in air)
7Electrolytes versus nonelectrolytes An electrolyte is a substance that will conduct an electric current when in an aq. Soln.Ionic compounds and polar covalent molecules in water generally are electrolytesA nonelectrolyte is a substance that will not conduct an electric current when in an aq. Soln.Nonpolar covalent molecules generally are nonelectrolytes
8Factors affecting the rate of dissolution Increase the surface area of the soluteCrushing/grinding will increase the amount of surface area a solvent affectsAgitate the solutionThink KMT, faster moving particles have more collisions, more collisions increase the amount of solvent affecting the soluteHeating the solventKMT
9SolubilitySoln equilibrium: the physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute occur at equal ratesWhen in equilibrium in a closed system, the solution is saturated (holds the max. amount of solute at given conditions)When a soln has less than max, it is said to be unsaturatedWhen holds more solute than a saturated soln has under the same conditions, called supersaturatedRequires heating and allowing soln to cool to saturated pointAs long as undisturbed, solute will remain dissolved. Disruptions will cause excess to precipitate (rock candy)
10Solubility is related to polarity. Solubility of a substance is the amount of the substance required to form a saturated soln with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature (if gas, pressure must also be stated)The rate of dissolution is not related to the solubility (at that temperature) Max amount of solute that dissolves to reach equilibrium is always the same under same conditionsSolubility is related to polarity.“like dissolves like” (polar dissolves polar, nonpolar dissolves nonpolar, nonpolar doesn’t dissolve polar)
11Liquid solvents and solutes If the liquids are not soluble in each other, use term immiscible instead of insolubleIf the liquids are soluble in each other, use term miscible instead of soluble
12Effects of Pressure on Solubility Changes in pressure have little effect on the solubilities of liquids or solidsPressure increases the ability of gas to dissolve in liquid (increase P, increase solubility)
13Henry’s Lawchemical law stating that the amount of a gas that dissolves in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas over the liquid, provided no chemical reaction takes place between the liquid and the gas.It is named after William Henry (1774–1836), the English chemist who first reported the relationship
14An everyday example of Henry's law is given by carbonated soft drinks such as colas (and also by beers and sparkling wines).Before the bottle or can is opened, the gas above the drink is almost pure carbon dioxide at a pressure slightly higher than atmospheric pressure.The drink itself contains dissolved carbon dioxide. When the bottle or can is opened, some of this gas escapes, giving the characteristic hissBecause the pressure above the liquid is now lower, some of the dissolved carbon dioxide comes out of solution as bubbles----this is called effervescence (think Mentos and diet pop)If a glass of the drink is left in the open, the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution will come into equilibrium with the carbon dioxide in the air, and the drink will go "flat"
15Henry's law can be put into mathematical terms (at constant temperature) as where p is the partial pressure of the solute, c is the concentration of the solute and kH is a constant with the dimensions of pressure divided by concentration.The constant, known as the Henry's law constant, depends on the solute, the solvent and the temperature.
16Pressure-Solubility Law (Henry's Law) The concentration of a gas in a liquid at any given temperature is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas on the solution. Cg = kgPgwhere Cg = the concentration of the gas, kg is the proportionally constant for that gas and Pg is the partial pressure of the gas above the solution. Constant temperature is assumed. This equation is true only at relatively low concentrations and pressure and for gases that do not do react with the solvent.A more useful expression of Henry's Law is C1= C2 P1 P2
17At 20oC the solubility of N2 in water is 0 At 20oC the solubility of N2 in water is g/L when the partial pressure of nitrogen is 580 torr. What will be the solubility of N2 in water at 20oC when its partial pressure is 800 torr?C1 = g/L C2 = ? P1 = 580 torr P2 = 800 torrC2 = C1 X P2 P1 = g/L X 800 torr 580 torr = g/LThe solubility under the higher pressure is g/L
18Enthalpy of solutionThe enthalpy of solution (or enthalpy of dissolution) is the enthalpy change associated with the dissolution of a substance in a solvent at constant pressure.We will expand on this later
19Solution CompositionPerhaps the most important property of a solution is its concentrationIn order to quantify the concentrations of solutions, chemists have devised many different units of concentration each of which is useful for different purposes.
20Weight percent = wt of solute wt of solution x 100% What is the weight percent of glucose in a solution made by dissolving 4.6 g of glucose in g of water?Determine total weight of solution:4.6 g g glucose-water solutionCalculate percent:Weight % glucose = 4.6 g glucose x 100 = 3.1%glucose g solution
21How would you prepare 400. g of a 2.50% solution of sodium chloride? Analysis: We need to find out how much salt is needed and how much water is needed.Determine weight of salt:400. g x 2.50% salt = 10.0 g salt400. g solution x 2.50 g salt g solution = 10.0 g saltDetermine weight of water:400. g total- 10. g salt390. g waterAnswer: Dissolve 10.0 g salt in 390. g water.
22MolarityThe term concentration is used to indicate the amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent or solution.The most widely used way of quantifying concentration in chemistry is molarity.The molarity (symbol M) of a solution is defined as the number of moles of solute in a liter volume of solution:
23Molarity abbreviated M. For example, calculate the volume of a 1.5 M solution of HCl necessary to completely react with 0.32 moles of NaOH:
24What is the molarity of a solution made by dissolving 20 grams of NaCl in 100 mls of water? M solution
25Calculate the number of moles of CaCl2 in 0. 78 liters of a 3 Calculate the number of moles of CaCl2 in 0.78 liters of a 3.5 M solution:
26How many liters of a 2.0 M solution of HNO3 do we need to have 5 moles of HNO3?
27Dilution alters the molarity (i. e Dilution alters the molarity (i.e. concentration) of the solution but not the total number of moles of molecules in the solution (in other words, dilution does not create or destroy molecules).One of the standard equations for determining the effects of dilution upon a sample is to set up an equation comparing (concentration)*(volume) before and after dilutionSince (concentration)*(volume) gives us the total number of moles in the sample, and since this does not change, this value before and after dilution are equal:
28X liters = 0.075 liters (or 75 mls) (concentration)*(volume) = (concentration)*(volume)(moles/liter)*(liter) = (moles/liter)*(liter)moles = molesHow much of a 5 M stock solution of NaCl will you need to make up 250 mls of a 1.5 M solution?X liters = liters (or 75 mls)
29What is the concentration of water? Molecular weight of H2O = 18.0g/moleDensity of H2O = 1g/ml or 1000g/LPure water is 55.6M H2O
30Molality An alternative unit of concentration to molarity is molality. The molality of a solute is the number of moles of that solute divided by the weight of the solvent in kilograms.For water solutions, 1 kg of water has a volume close to that of 1 liter, so molality and molarity are similar in dilute aqueous solutions.
31molality (M) = moles solute/kg of solution To convert a volume and a molality of a solution to moles of solute, simply solve the above equation for moles of solute:moles solute = molality * kg of solution
32If you have 10. 0 grams of Br2 and dissolve it in 1 If you have 10.0 grams of Br2 and dissolve it in 1.00 L of cyclohexane, what is the molality of the solution? The density of cyclohexane is kg/l at room temperature.10 g / (159.8 g/mole) = moles BR21.00 L * kg/l = kg (convert the volume of solvent to the weight of solvent using the density)0.063 moles Br2/ kg cyclohexane = molal
33NormalityWhen you need to compare solutions on the basis of concentration of specific ions or the amount of charge that the ions have, a different measure of concentration can be very useful. It is called normalityNormality, the number of molar equivalents of solute per liter of solution, has the units equivalents / L which are abbreviated N.
34The normality of a solution is simply a multiple of the molarity of the solution. Generally, the normality of a solution is just one, two or three times the molarity. In rare cases it can be four, five, six or even seven times as much.