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Introduction to Microprocessors From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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1 Introduction to Microprocessors From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2 Microprocessor A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). [1]central processing unit (CPU) integrated circuit [1] The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using BCD arithmetics on 4-bit words.calculatorsBCDwords Other embedded uses of 4 and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation etc, followed rather quickly.embeddedterminalsprintersautomation Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first general purpose microcomputers in the mid-1970s. microcomputers

3 Microprocessor Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6.75 mm) in its packagingIntel 80486DX2

4 Central processing unit A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes just called processor, is a description of a class of logic machines that can execute computer programs.computer programs This broad definition can easily be applied to many early computers that existed long before the term "CPU" ever came into widespread usage. However, the term itself and its initialism have been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s (Weik 1961).(Weik 1961) The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation has remained much the same.

5 Central processing unit Early CPUs were custom-designed as a part of a larger, usually one- of-a-kind, computer. However, this costly method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has largely given way to the development of mass-produced processors that are suited for one or many purposes. This standardization trend generally began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has rapidly accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit (IC). transistormainframesminicomputersintegrated circuit The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured in very small spaces (on the order of millimeters). Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of these digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to cell phones to children's toys.millimetersautomobiles cell phones

6 Central processing unit Prior to the advent of machines that resemble today's CPUs, computers such as the ENIAC had to be physically rewired in order to perform different tasks.ENIAC These machines are often referred to as "fixed- program computers," since they had to be physically reconfigured in order to run a different program. Since the term "CPU" is generally defined as a software (computer program) execution device, the earliest devices that could rightly be called CPUs came with the advent of the stored-program computer.

7 ... like being inside the computer slartmagazine.com

8 EDVAC, one of the first electronic stored program computers.EDVAC

9 ENIAC The idea of a stored-program computer was already present during ENIAC's design, but was initially omitted so the machine could be finished sooner. On June 30, 1945, before ENIAC was even completed, mathematician John von Neumann distributed the paper entitled "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC."John von NeumannFirst Draft of a Report on the EDVAC It outlined the design of a stored-program computer that would eventually be completed in August 1949 (von Neumann 1945). EDVAC was designed to perform a certain number of instructions (or operations) of various types. These instructions could be combined to create useful programs for the EDVAC to run.(von Neumann 1945) Significantly, the programs written for EDVAC were stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer. This overcame a severe limitation of ENIAC, which was the large amount of time and effort it took to reconfigure the computer to perform a new task.computer memory With von Neumann's design, the program, or software, that EDVAC ran could be changed simply by changing the contents of the computer's memory. [1] [1]

10 ENIAC ENIAC, short for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer, [1] was the first general-purpose electronic computer. Precisely, it was the first high-speed, purely electronic, Turing-complete, digital computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems, [2] since earlier machines had been built with some of these properties. ENIAC was designed and built to calculate artillery firing tables for the U.S. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory. [1]Turing-complete [2]artilleryfiring tablesU.S. ArmyBallistic Research Laboratory The contract was signed on June 5, 1943 and Project PX was constructed by the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering from July, It was unveiled on February 14, 1946 at Penn, having cost almost $500,000. ENIAC was shut down on November 9, 1946 for a refurbishment and a memory upgrade, and was transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland in There, on July 29 of that year, it was turned on and would be in continuous operation until 11:45 p.m. on October 2, 1955.June 51943University of PennsylvaniaMoore School of Electrical Engineering1943February November 91946Aberdeen Proving GroundMaryland1947July 29 October 21955

11 Glen Beck (background) and Betty Snyder (foreground) program the ENIAC in BRL building 328. (U.S. Army photo)Betty SnyderBRL

12 Programmers Betty Jean Jennings (left) and Fran Bilas (right) operate the ENIAC's main control panel at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering. (U.S. Army photo from the archives of the ARL Technical Library)Betty Jean JenningsFran Bilas Moore School of Electrical Engineering

13 Cpl. Irwin Goldstein (foreground) sets the switches on one of the ENIAC's function tables at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering. (U.S. Army photo)Moore School of Electrical Engineering

14 Microprocessor Processors were for a long period constructed out of small and medium-scale ICs containing the equivalent of a few to a few hundred transistors. The integration of the whole CPU onto a single VLSI chip therefore greatly reduced the cost of processing capacity.VLSI chip From their humble beginnings, continued increases in microprocessor capacity has rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessor as processing element in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and super computers.history of computing hardware embedded systemshandheld devices mainframessuper computers

15 Three projects arguably delivered a complete microprocessor at about the same time, namely Intel's 4004, the Texas Instruments (TI) TMS 1000, and Garrett AiResearch's Central Air Data Computer (CADC).Intel4004Texas Instruments Garrett AiResearch Central Air Data Computer The 4004 with cover removed (left) and as actually used (right). Microprocessor

16 ARCHITECTURES 8-bit designs 16-bit designs 32-bit designs 64-bit designs in personal computers Multicore designs RISC Special-purpose designs – microcontrollers, digital signal processors (DSP) and graphics processing units (GPU). microcontrollersdigital signal processors graphics processing units

17 65xx – MOS Technology 6502 MOS Technology 6502 – Western Design Center 65xx Western Design Center ARM family Altera Nios, Nios IINiosNios II Atmel AVR architecture (purely microcontrollers) Atmel AVRmicrocontrollers EISC RCA 1802 (aka RCA COSMAC, CDP1802) RCA 1802 DEC Alpha Intel – 4004, – 8080, – 8048, – iAPX 432 iAPX 432 – i860, i960 i860i960 – Itanium Itanium LatticeMico32 M32R architecture MIPS architecture Motorola – Motorola 6800 Motorola 6800 – Motorola 6809 Motorola 6809 – Motorola family, ColdFire Motorola familyColdFire – [[MotoG4, G5G4G5

18 NSC 320xx OpenCores OpenRISC architecture OpenCoresOpenRISC PA-RISC family National Semiconductor SC/MP ("scamp") National Semiconductor SC/MP Signetics 2650 SPARC SuperH family Transmeta Crusoe, Efficeon (VLIW architectures, IA bit Intel x86 emulator) TransmetaCrusoeEfficeonVLIWIA-32x86emulator INMOS Transputer x86 architecture – Intel 8086, 8088, 80186, (16-bit real mode-only x86 architecture) Intel real mode – Intel (16-bit real mode and protected mode x86 architecture) Intel 80286protected mode – IA bit x86 architecture IA-32 – x bit x86 architecture x86-64 XAP processor from Cambridge Consultants XAP processor Xilinx – MicroBlaze soft processor MicroBlaze – PowerPC405 embedded hard processor in Virtex FPGAsVirtex Zilog – Z80, Z180, eZ80 Z80Z180eZ80 – Z8, eZ8 Z8eZ8 – and others


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