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1 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Data Communication, Lecture6 Digital Baseband Transmission

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2 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Digital Baseband Transmission n Why to apply digital transmission? n Symbols and bits n Baseband transmission –Binary error probabilities in baseband transmission n Pulse shaping –minimizing ISI and making bandwidth adaptation signaling –maximizing SNR at the instant of sampling - matched filtering –optimal terminal filters n Determination of transmission bandwidth as a function of pulse shape –Spectral density of Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) n Equalization - removing residual ISI - eye diagram

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3 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Why to Apply Digital Transmission? n Digital communication withstands channel noise, interference and distortion better than analog system. For instance in PSTN inter-exchange STP-links NEXT (Near-End Cross-Talk) produces several interference. For analog systems interference must be below 50 dB whereas in digital system 20 dB is enough. With this respect digital systems can utilize lower quality cabling than analog systems n Regenerative repeaters are efficient. Note that cleaning of analog-signals by repeaters does not work as well n Digital HW/SW implementation is straightforward n Circuits can be easily reconfigured and preprogrammed by DSP techniques (an application: software radio) n Digital signals can be coded to yield very low error rates n Digital communication enables efficient exchanging of SNR to BW-> easy adaptation into different channels n The cost of digital HW continues to halve every two or three years STP: Shielded twisted pair

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4 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Symbols and Bits 110011111010 For M=2 (binary signalling): For non-Inter-Symbolic Interference (ISI), p(t) must satisfy: This means that at the instant of decision Generally: (a PAM* signal) *Pulse Amplitude Modulation unipolar, 2-level pulses

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5 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Digital Transmission n ‘Baseband’ means that no carrier wave modulation is used for transmission Information: - analog:BW & dynamic range - digital:bit rate Information: - analog:BW & dynamic range - digital:bit rate Maximization of information transferred Transmitted power; bandpass/baseband signal BW Transmitted power; bandpass/baseband signal BW Message protection & channel adaptation; convolution, block coding Message protection & channel adaptation; convolution, block coding M-PSK/FSK/ASK..., depends on channel BW & characteristics wireline/wireless constant/variable linear/nonlinear wireline/wireless constant/variable linear/nonlinear Noise Interference Channel Modulator Channel Encoder Channel Encoder Source encoder Source encoder Channel decoder Channel decoder Source decoder Source decoder Demodulator Information sink Information sink Information source Information source Message estimate Received signal (may contain errors) Transmitted signal Interleaving Fights against burst errors Deinterleaving In baseband systems these blocks are missing

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6 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Baseband Digital Transmission Link message reconstruction at yields messageISI Gaussian bandpass noise Unipolar PAM original message bits decision instances received wave y(t)

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7 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Baseband Unipolar Binary Error Probability The sample-and-hold circuit yields: Establish H 0 and H 1 hypothesis: and p N (y): Noise spectral density Assume binary & unipolar x(t)

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8 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Determining Decision Threshold Choose Ho (a k =0) if Y<V Choose H1 (a k =1) if Y>V The comparator implements decision rule: Average error error probability: Assume Gaussian noise: Transmitted ‘0’ but detected as ‘1’

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9 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Determining Error Rate that can be expressed by using the Q-function, defined by and therefore and also

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10 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen

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11 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen

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12 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Baseband Binary Error Rate in Terms of Pulse Shape and for unipolar, rectangular NRZ [0,A] bits setting V=A/2 yields then for polar, rectangular NRZ [-A/2,A/2] bits and hence Note that (lower limit with sinc-pulses (see later))

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13 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Pulse Shaping and Band-limited Transmission n In digital transmission signaling pulse shape is chosen to satisfy the following requirements: –yields maximum SNR at the time instance of decision (matched filtering) –accommodates signal to channel bandwidth: rapid decrease of pulse energy outside the main lobe in frequency domain alleviates filter design lowers cross-talk in multiplexed systems

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14 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Signaling With Cosine Roll-off Signals n Maximum transmission rate can be obtained with sinc-pulses n However, they are not time-limited. A more practical choice is the cosine roll-off signaling: for raised cos-pulses =r/2

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15 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Example n By using and polar signaling, the following waveform is obtained: n Note that the zero crossing are spaced by D at (this could be seen easily also in eye-diagram) n The zero crossing are easy to detect for clock recovery. Note that unipolar baseband signaling involves performance penalty of 3 dB compared to polar signaling:

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16 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Matched Filtering H(f) + + Should be maximized Post filter noise Peak amplitude to be maximized

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17 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Matched Filtering SNR and Transfer Function Schwartz’s inequality applies when SNR at the moment of sampling Considering right hand side yields max SNR impulse response is: pulse energy

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18 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen

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19 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen

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20 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Determining Transmission Bandwidth for an Arbitrary Baseband Signaling Waveform n Determine the relation between r and B when p(t)=sinc 2 at n First note from time domain that hence this waveform is suitable for signaling n There exists a Fourier transform pair n From the spectra we note that and hence it must be that for baseband

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21 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen PAM Power Spectral Density (PSD) n PSD for PAM can be determined by using a general expression n For uncorrelated message bits and therefore on the other hand and Amplitude autocorrelation Total power DC power

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22 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Example n For unipolar binary RZ signal: n Assume source bits are equally alike and independent, thus

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23 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Equalization: Removing Residual ISI n Consider a tapped delay line equalizer with n Search for the tap gains c N such that the output equals zero at sample intervals D except at the decision instant when it should be unity. The output is (think for instance paths c -N, c N or c 0 ) that is sampled at yielding

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24 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Tapped Delay Line: Matrix Representation n At the instant of decision: n That leads into (2N+1)x(2N+1) matrix where (2N+1) tap coefficients can be solved: +

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25 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Example of Equalization n Read the distorted pulse values into matrix from fig. (a) and the solution is Zero forced values Question: what does these zeros help because they don’t exist at the sampling instant?

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26 Helsinki University of Technology,Communications Laboratory, Timo O. Korhonen Monitoring Transmission Quality by Eye Diagram Required minimum bandwidth is Nyqvist’s sampling theorem: Given an ideal LPF with the bandwidth B it is possible to transmit independent symbols at the rate:

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