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Oracle Spatial and Mapviewer Problems From Real World Applications

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2 Spatial Data Types All Location/Spatial Data Stored in the Database Spatial Indexing Fast Access to Spatial Data Spatial Access Through SQL Spatial Analysis Oracle Spatial Capabilities

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3 Manage ALL Geospatial Data Types Data Locations (points) Networks (Connectivity) Parcels (polygons) Imagery (Raster) Structured Networks/Boundaries (persistent topology) 3D data (models, LIDAR)

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4 Some Interesting Problems From The Commercial World

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Network Partitioning

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6 Network Data Model Data Model Store network (graph) structure in the database Maintains connectivity of the network Attributes at link and node level Network Analysis Functions Traditional network algorithms are based on main memory Need new approaches to deal with large networks that are too big to fit into main memory

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7 Load On Demand Analysis Supports load-on-demand approach for very large networks Networks are logically partitioned Each sub-network is small (thousands of nodes/edges) Sub-networks are incrementally loaded into memory as needed for analysis Partitioning utilities are available for partitioning large spatial networks

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8 Spatial Network Partitioning

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9 Logical Network Partitioning GO2Keyword.r df UniProt.rdf GO.rdf Keywords.rdf Taxonomy.r df PubMed.xm l Citation IntAct.rdf Organism Enzymes.rdf OMIM.r df GO2OMIM.r df GO2Enzyme.rd f MIM Id KEGG.rdf Keyword GO2UniProt.r df Protein Enzyme ProbeSet.rdf Gene Probe Pathway Compound Very Large networks (few hundred million nodes/links) Updates to the data are common

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Automated Generation of 3D data

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11 SDO_GEOMETRY for 3D Data Points Lines Simple Surfaces All points of a surface lie in a 3D plane A 3 point 3D polygon is the simplest surface A simple surface can have any polygonal shape Composite surfaces has one or more connected simple surfaces It can be closed or open The simple surfaces in a composite surface cannot cross each other surface of a cube is an example of a composite surface Cube has six simple surfaces Each simple surface is a 3D square (2,0,2) (4,2,2) (4,0,4) Y Z

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12 SDO_GEOMETRY for 3D Data Simple Solids Solids are composed of closed surfaces It has to have one outer surface and one or more interior surfaces Cube is an example of a simple solid A pyramid is another example of a simple solid Composite Solids Consists of n simple solids as a connected solid Can be represented as a simple solid with a composite surface Topologically there is an equivalent simple solid, but the composite solid representation is easier Example: A building composed of rooms Simple, composite solids: Always define a single contiguous volume

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13 3D Data Extraction Extract faces of buildings Generation of valid 3D objects from primitive elements Generating a valid multi-surface from a set of planar polygons Generating a valid solid/multi-solid from a set of planar polygons

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14 2d foot-print plus height values + (h1, …, hn) = 3D Extrusion Extruding 2D foot-prints to valid 3D objects Any arbitrary shape with holes Can we generate such complex objects with extrusion ?

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Generalization in 3D

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16 City GML Example Start with building models generating using CAD data Generate generalized views of the data for large volumes of data (city models)

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Map Generalization

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Map Simplification with Multiple Layers Mapshaper.org

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Managing Very Large TINs

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20 TIN: Triangulated Irregular Network Node NoXYZ What is a TIN? Vector-based topological data model used to represent terrain/surface Contain a network of irregularly spaced triangles 3D surface representation derived from irregularly spaced points Each sample point has an x, y coordinate and a z value or surface value

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21 Disk based TIN Generation Many main memory algorithms for creating TINs These algorithms do not scale for very large number of points Constrains add additional complexity Break lines, stop lines Void polygons

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22 Grid based TIN Generation

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