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1 The effect of learning styles on the navigation needs of Web-based learners Jens O. Lieglea, Thomas N. Janicki (in press). The effect of learning styles.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The effect of learning styles on the navigation needs of Web-based learners Jens O. Lieglea, Thomas N. Janicki (in press). The effect of learning styles."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The effect of learning styles on the navigation needs of Web-based learners Jens O. Lieglea, Thomas N. Janicki (in press). The effect of learning styles on the navigation needs of Web-baised learners. Computers in Human Behavior. Speaker :陸虹妙 Date : 2004/10/4

2 2 Outline Introduction Background & Motivation Research question Literature Kolb learning style Experimental design Results and Discussion Limitations Conclusion Future research

3 3 Introduction--Background & Motivation 目前現況 Web-based training 快速成長 愈來愈多的課程教材放在網路上 Course management tool 只提供 ”one-size-fits-all” approach 沒有考慮不同學習者的需要是許多學習系統失敗原 因之 一 文獻研究狀況 Melara’s navigational control experiment (1996) Reed, Oughton, Ayersman, Ervin, and Giessler (2000) Chen and Macredie (2002)

4 4 Melara ’ s navigational control experiment (1996) 研究目的 examined the effect of learning style (based on Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory) on learner performance within two different hypertext structures: hierarchical and network. 研究結果 no significant differences in achievement for Explorers and Observers using either hypertext structure. 建議 examine the time spent on different activities that are targeted towards these two different personality types. (no correlation between learning style as measured by the Kolb groupings to time on task by Reed, Oughton, Ayersman, Ervin, and Giessler (2000).)

5 5 Research by Reed, Oughton, Ayersman, Ervin, and Giessler (2000) 研究目的 examined the relationship between learning style and nonlinear steps vs. linear steps 研究結果 no relationship based on the Kolb groupings a relationship between learning style as measured with the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and navigation behavior 研究限制 18 subjects were used an antiquated HyperCard system from before 1995 was used as the navigation environment, instead of a WWW (World Wide Web)- based hypertext system.

6 6 Research by Chen and Macredie (2002) 研究目的 Field Dependent (FD) vs. Field Independent (FI) learners differ in the preference for linear vs. nonlinear pathways through hypermedia systems. 研究結果 FD learners preferred guided navigation, while FI preferred freedom of navigation. 結果推測 FI might benefit from learning systems with learner control, while FD might prefer system-controlled linear navigation.

7 7 Introduction -- Research questions Whether the learning styles explorer vs. observer have an effect on the navigational habits of users of Web-based training modules, the amount of learning that takes place.

8 8 Kolb learning style inventory Explorer : learner control Observer: system control

9 9 Experimental design  Ten different Ph.D. graduate business students  a management theory of employee motivation.

10 10 An overview of learning objectives List of pre-requisites A variety of presentation styles Learner self-control Feedback and testing

11 11  The system had been programmed effectively.  support at least 16 simultaneous users without any difficulties or degradation of speed and performance. Experimental design

12 12 68 Undergraduate volunteers from three sections of the same class (Principles of Management) Three different instructors all agreed not to present any course material on the employee motivation theories Details of phase four:

13 13 Results and Discussion Q1: Do learners with different learning styles use Web-based training systems differently? Hypothesis test H 0 : There is no difference in the approaches H 1 : Users classified with learning style Explorer follow a non-linear approach to learning in computer-based learning systems, while users with the learning style Observers follow a linear approach.

14 14 Results and Discussion Q2: Should the previous hypotheses be supported, does this (non- linear or linear movement) have an effect on the amount of learning that takes place? Hypothesis test H0: There is no difference in the amount of learning. H1: (a) Users with the learning style Explorer that follow a non- linear approach to learning in computer-based learning systems learn more than Explorers that follow a linear learning approach, while (b) Users with the learning style Observers learn more following a linear approach instead of a non-linear learning approach.

15 15 Results and Discussion Since p =0.083 <  = 0.1, we reject H0 and conclude H1 The difference of the means is significant, and therefore explorers jumped more than observers.

16 16 Results and Discussion Since P = <  = 0.1, we reject H0 and conclude H1. Find that difference to be statistically significant.

17 17 Results and Discussion Since p = 0.16 >  1, we cannot reject H0. The difference is statistically not significant.

18 18 Results and Discussion The score difference indeed becomes significant at p=0.089 <  = 0.1

19 19 Limitations While  =0.1, it is significant for exploratory research. * 可能的原因是每一個訓練模組平均頁數相當少 (8 pages / per module) *Longer modules, more links, and more time might lead to different results.

20 20 Conclusion Explorer : tended to “jump” more, learn at their own sequence Observer : tended to follow the suggested path “jump” explorers scored higher than “not jump” explorers on the quiz. “not jump” observers scored higher than “jump” observers on the quiz.

21 21 Future research 本實驗給所有使用者二種選擇: simply go to the next page or jump to am out-of-sequence page at any time * 未來實驗可依 observer vs. explorer 分類,給予客製化的瀏覽選 擇 simple next button vs. hyperlink-enabled systems * 假設「被強迫經常選擇跳任一頁的 explorer 應比只能跳下一頁的 explorer 學得多」。 * 假設「被強迫選擇跳下一頁的 observer 應比透過系統引導循序瀏 覽下一頁的 observer 學得少」。 examines whether the potential increase in learning is offset by the increase in cost that comes with the need for providing multiple versions of the training system


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