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The Value of Textbooks: Groundwork of E-volution Research Design

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Purpose of Study Why aren’t my students buying e-books? Is there something about learning that is facilitated by print textbooks?

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Research Questions What are the attitudes of Campbellsville University students towards the textbooks used in general education course? Do textbooks in general education courses provide sufficient value added? Under which conditions would students be willing to move towards non-print versions of content delivery? (e-books or non-books)

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Hypotheses H1: The better a student, the more likely they are to perceive the value of textbooks. H2: The greater the share of classes for which a student has purchased their textbooks, the better the students’ GPA H3: The more experienced a student, the more likely they are to perceive the value of textbooks. H4: The greater the perceived value of textbooks, the greater the value of print versions vis a vis alternative.

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Design In class survey administered by instructor Six (6) categorical questions regarding the purchase of and belief in necessity of textbooks Two (2) categorical questions about interest in e- texts Two (2) demographic questions concerned with GPA and hours toward completion Three (3) open ended questions about the student’s perception of textbooks

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Methodology Non-experimental design – Descriptive and explanatory – Survey based Sample and Sampling Procedures – Purposeful, criterion based – Selective based on instructor volunteers Instrument – Closed- and open-ended questions Data Analysis – Testing for relationships – Bivariate Correlation – Testing for between group differences One-way ANOVA Tukey Post-Hoc – Ordered Logit (Q3~Q4+Q6+Q9+Q10)

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Purchase of Textbooks Purchase of Textbooks: Correlation Matrix 1a1b a. Purchase all required texts-- 1b. Purchase any required texts-- 2. Textbook was necessary.374**.365**- 3. Textbook was helpful.302**.316**.783**- 4. Textbook is necessary for others.285**.254**.643**.695**- 5. Expected GPA Hours completed *.190**- **p <.001 (2-tailed) * p <.05 (2-tailed)

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Implications of Results For purchasing any or all textbooks: – Textbooks were perceived as necessary for self and others – Textbooks were perceived as helpful Students with higher number of completed hours believed textbooks were necessary for others No relationship between GPA and perceived value of textbooks

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Between Group Testing ANOVA test for between group differences found significance for buy any required textbooks and – Textbook was necessary: F(4, 215) = 9.799, p<.001 – Textbook was helpful: F(4, 221) = 6.918, p<.001 – Textbook necessary for others: F(4, 215) = 5.248, p<.001 Post hoc testing found differences in perceived value for all variables occurs for groups less than 20% and more than 40% Suggests that the higher the perceived value the more likely a student is to buy the textbook

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Ordered Logit H1: The better a student, the more likely they are to perceive the value of textbooks. H2: The greater the share of classes for which a student has purchased their textbooks, the better the students’ GPA H3: The more experienced a student, the more likely they are to perceive the value of textbooks. H4: The greater the perceived value of textbooks, the greater the value of print versions vis a vis alternative.

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Ordered Logit Similarities between all/many, necessary/helpful Probability purchase any books: – Increases for some classes (8-10%) – Decreases for all classes (from 74% to 37%)

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For Future Research Is this a CU issue, or a broader issue? Are all subjects the same? Is this a pedagological problem? Not using books well, or not teaching well? Is the question of e-adoption about changing perceptions of textbooks, or about re-think how we use the virtual world?

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E-Adoption The difference between digital migration and integrated convergence – Digital migration is moving from one medium to another – Integrated convergence is moving in innovative unison through a common medium Disruptive education necessitates moving from the old core to dynamic decentralization Must leverage a connected world in authentic and organic ways Context and logistics are no longer static moderators of communities of learners

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APPENDIX

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1a, 2 Results revealed a significant, positive correlation between students that bought all textbooks and the belief that textbooks are necessary to attain the academic goal, r(227) =.374, p<.001. The implication of this result is that students who believed that textbooks were necessary to attain the academic goal were more likely to purchase all required textbooks.

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1a,3 Results revealed a significant, positive correlation between students that bought all textbooks and the belief that textbooks are helpful to attaining the academic goal, r(221) =.302, p<.001. The implication of this result is that students who believed that textbooks were helpful to attaining the academic goal were more likely to purchase all required textbooks.

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1a,4 Results revealed a significant, positive correlation between students that bought all textbooks and the belief that textbooks are necessary for others to attain their academic goals, r(226) =.285, p<.001. The implication of this result is that students who believed that textbooks were necessary to attain the academic goal were more likely to believe that purchase of textbooks were necessary to others for them to attain their academic goals.

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1b, 2 Significant, positive correlation between students that bought any textbooks and the belief that textbooks are necessary to attain the academic goal, r(226) =.365, p<.001. The implication of this result is that students who believed that textbooks were necessary to attain the academic goal were more likely to purchase all required textbooks.

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1b,3 Results revealed a significant, positive correlation between students that bought all textbooks and the belief that textbooks are helpful to attaining the academic goal, r(226) =.316, p<.001. The implication of this result is that students who believed that textbooks were helpful to attaining the academic goal were more likely to purchase all required textbooks.

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1b,4 Results revealed a significant, positive correlation between students that bought all textbooks and the belief that textbooks are necessary for others to attain their academic goals, r(221) =.254, p<.001. The implication of this result is that students who believed that textbooks were helpful to attaining the academic goal were more likely to believe that purchase of textbooks were necessary to others for them to attain their academic goals.

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2,3 Results revealed a significant, positive correlation between students that belief that textbooks are necessary and helpful to attaining the academic goal, r(227) =.783, p<.001. The implication of this result is that students who believed that textbooks are necessary to attaining the academic goal are more likely to find textbooks helpful.

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4, 5 Results revealed a significant, positive correlation between students that belief that textbooks are necessary for others to attain the academic goal and number of hours completed, r(218) =.171, p<.05. The implication of this result is that students who believed that textbooks are necessary for others to attain the academic goal are more likely to have a higher number of hours completed toward their degree.

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5,6 Results revealed a significant, positive correlation between students GPA and number of hours completed, r(219) =.190, p<.001. The implication of this result is that students who reported a higher GPA are more likely to have a higher number of hours completed toward their degree.

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