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WORLD VETERINARY DAY Vaccination to prevent and protect 24 th April 2013 Merit House, Abuja Oyewale TOMORI, DVM, fcvsn.

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD VETERINARY DAY Vaccination to prevent and protect 24 th April 2013 Merit House, Abuja Oyewale TOMORI, DVM, fcvsn."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD VETERINARY DAY Vaccination to prevent and protect 24 th April 2013 Merit House, Abuja Oyewale TOMORI, DVM, fcvsn

2 World Veterinary Day is the day when Veterinarians get together to show the World the value of their work! The focus this year is on veterinarians using vaccinations to prevent animal and human diseases, and protect animals and humans from getting diseases

3 Outline of discussion What are vaccines? How are they made? Why do we need them? Veterinary profession, vaccination and Nigeria

4 Vaccine derived from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cow pox (Latin - variola vaccinia, adapted from the Latin vaccīn-us, from vacca, cow), to inoculate humans, providing them protection against smallpox. a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. contains an agent that resembles a disease- causing microorganism, VACCINE

5 made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" With future encounters with microbe, immune system better able to recognize and destroy microbe. VACCINE

6 Vaccines prepared in different forms and types Killed -previously virulent, micro-organisms destroyed with chemicals, heat, radioactivity or antibiotics. Examples are the Attenuated - live, microorganisms. cultivated under conditions that disable their virulent properties, or which use closely related but less dangerous organisms to produce a broad immune response. TYPES OFVACCINESY Types and forms of vaccines

7 most attenuated vaccines are viral, some are bacterial in nature. provoke more durable immunological responses Attenuated vaccines have capacity of transient growth, may revert to virulent form and cause disease, but results in prolonged protection TYPES OFVACCINESY Types and forms of vaccines

8 Toxoid - inactivated toxic compounds that cause illness rather than the micro-organism. Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. tetanusdiphtheria Conjugate vaccines ConjugateConjugate – poorly immunogenic bacteria polysaccharide linked (conjugated ) with proteins (e.g. toxins), Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. TYPES OFVACCINESY Types of vaccines

9 TYPES OFVACCINESY Types of vaccines Subunit vaccines Protein subunitProtein subunit –a fragment of the organism is used to create an immune response. hepatitis B vaccine- subunit vaccine composed of only the surface proteins of virus, human papillomavirus (HPV) viral major capsid protein, andcapsid influenza vaccine - hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunitshemagglutinin neuraminidase Synthetic vaccine - developed to tackle problematic forms of fooot-and-mouth disease (FMD)

10 Vaccines may be monovalent (also called univalent) or multivalent (also called polyvalent). A monovalent vaccine is designed to immunize against a single antigen or single microorganism. A multivalent or polyvalent vaccine is designed to immunize against two or more strains of the same microorganism, or against two or more microorganisms. In certain cases a monovalent vaccine may be preferable for rapidly developing a strong immune response.

11 Vaccines may be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen, or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated - cancer vaccine).

12 Vaccines do not always guarantee complete protection from a disease because host's immune system does not respond adequately or at all, due to lowered immunity in general (diabetes, steroid use, HIV infection, age) host's immune system does not have a B cell capable of generating antibodies to that antigen.

13 Immune system not perfect, so even if the host develops antibodies, infection can still be established, but the infection will be less severe and heal faster. The efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors: *the disease itself *the strain of vaccine *keeping to vaccination schedule *other factors- species/age/genetic predisposition

14 1885-1890: first rinderpest panzootic in West Africa caused deaths of over 90% of the cattle population. 1913-1914: second wave of rinderpest panzootic reduced cattle population from 9.million to 2.7 million. 1913: Veterinary Department established in Zaria to conduct livestock census, disease surveys, and disease control by isolation and quarantine 1924: Zaria Veterinary Department moved to Vom as a Veterinary Laboratory. Veterinary vaccine production in Nigeria

15 1924: first biological (anti-rinderpest serum) produced to control the rinderpest outbreaks. Vom activity later expanded to include production of animal Vaccines. 1975: FDVR became NVRI, a Veterinary Institute committed to research excellence and the production of quality vaccines of the highest standard for the livestock industry. Veterinary vaccine production in Nigeria

16 Mandate of NVRI conduct Research into all aspects of animal diseases, including treatment and control establish and sustain surveillance and diagnosis system for animal diseases introduce exotic stock for improved egg, meat and milk production Veterinary vaccine production in Nigeria

17 Mandate of NVRI provide extension services to poultry and livestock farmers train intermediate level manpower in veterinary laboratory technology and animal health and production technology. develop and produce animal vaccines, sera and biological to meet the national demand Veterinary vaccine production in Nigeria

18 Bacterial NVRI Vaccines Viral Contagious bovine pleuro- pneumonia (CBPPV) Blackquarter (BQV) Brucella S19 (BV) Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HSV) Hantavac Fowl typhoid (FTV) Fowl cholera (FCV) Newcastle disease intra-ocular (NDV i/o) Newcastle disease Lasota (NDV L) Newcastle disease Komarov (NDV K) Newcastle disease I2 (NDV I2) Fowl pox (FPV) Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro) Peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) Anti rabies (ARV) (dog)

19 Through vaccination, veterinarians prevent and protect animals from diseases that can affect not only animals, but also in some cases also affect humans (zoonoses). The veterinarian in clinical practice, protects the community by vaccinating pets In large animal practice, vaccination ensures successful farming of production animals are protected against disease to prevent outbreaks and maximize production. In regulatory medicine, vaccination is used to prevent regional, national and trans-boundary outbreaks of disease. Vaccination to prevent and protect

20 Jigawa vaccinates 3m livestock in 5 years – Commissioner Published: December 29,2012 He said that more than two million cattle and 1.2 million sheep were vaccinated against various diseases within the last five years. He also said that 23,450 dogs were vaccinated against rabies in the 27 local government areas of the state. …….”initiated and supported the livestock vaccination exercise, which aims at providing protection for the animals against major devastating diseases,’’ since 2007, the outbreak of livestock diseases had been reduced to the barest minimum

21 Rabies: Health minister urges Nigerians to vaccinate dogs - September 28, 2012 18:25 - NAN NAN-HG-6 Rabies Abuja, Sept. 28, 2012 (NAN) The Minster of Health, Prof. Onyebuchi Ckukwu, in Abuja on Friday urged Nigerians to vaccinate their dogs and check movement of stray dogs to prevent rabies. He also advised people that eat dog meat, popularly known as ``404”, to cook the meat properly so as to guard against infection.

22 Science News from universities, journals, & other research organizations Vaccines Backfire: Veterinary Vaccines Found to Combine Into New Infectious Viruses July 12, 2012 — Research from the University of Melbourne has shown that two different vaccine viruses- used simultaneously to control the same condition in chickens- have combined to produce new infectious viruses H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9


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