4EconomySilver & sugarParticipated in world economy through slave tradeSlave trade traced back to 15th century, rose in 17th and 18th centuriesGrafted onto existing system of slave commerce2 Africans for every 1 European essential to prosperity of American colonies
5Economy Merchants shipped slaves around Indian Ocean More slaves sent to Americas once plantation agriculture began to spreadW. flow=12 million survived forcible enslavement/ shipment to Atlantic ports 1440s-1867Merchant capitalists prospered slave trade rose
6EconomyCommercial fortune depended on alliances with African trading & Political networksAfrican partners/ commercial networks left to capture slavesHigh morality = losses of profitsMerchants-active role in supplying slaves for transatlantic shipmentShift=Households that commanded large animal herds or land urban merchants and warrior elites
9Religion Asante (Ashanti) Benin Universal god – Onyame Kingdom of the Dead – SamandeAncestor WorshipBeninPolytheisticPower of witchesMostly ChristianAbout ¼ Islam;Vudun or “voodoo”
10Language Misconception: there was no written language until recently AsanteDecedents of Akan TribesVarious forms of Twi; tone languageBeninLearned written and spoken language from the PortugueseNative Language Kwa
11Dress&Customs Women Influence Ashanti Weaving (only men) Different patternsMatrilinealGoldBeninBronze artFunerals = Important part of someone’s historyDrummers and dancers perform at funerals
13Political Dutch armada of 21 ships Captured Luanda, Benguela, and Sao Tome from Portuguese1623, Portuguese signed a treaty with Ndongo
14Political 1624, Nzinga became Queen of Ndongo Conquered kingdom of Matamba in war with PortugueseMade alliance with DutchDutch sent her soldiersQueen Nzinga
15Political Portuguese gained strength back Portuguese drove Dutch out of Luanda in 1648Dutch no longer helpedNzinga could fight Portuguese anymoreSigned treaty giving Portuguese access to Matamba’s marketsVideo: Verbalizm: David J
16Primary SourceThose sold by the Blacks are for the most part prisoners of war, taken either in fight, or pursuit, or in the incursions they make into their enemies territories; others stolen away by their own countrymen; and some there are, who will sell their own children, kindred, or neighbors. This has been often seen, and to compass it, they desire the person they intend to sell, to help them in carrying something to the factory by way of trade, and when there, the person so deluded, not understanding the language, is old and deliver'd up as a slave, notwithstanding all his resistance, and exclaiming against the treachery....Written by John Barbot (an agent for the French Royal African Company) in 1678
17QuestionsBased on this passage what do you think about the family bonds in Africa?Do you think anybody make alliances with the Dutch after they let Queen Nzinga down?How do you think the shift of wealth to urban merchants and warrior elites effected the rest of society?
18WORKS CITED“Ancient Africa for Kids .” MrDonn. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct <http://africa.mrdonn.org/benin.html>. “Ancient Clothing .” History for Kids . N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct <http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/clothing/ >.“Ashanti .” Ashanti . Jay INC , n.d. Web. 20 Oct <http://www.ashanti.com.au/pb/wp_ f.html>.“Benin Religion Benin Beliefs.” Over Landing Africa . N.p., Web. 20 Oct <http://www.overlandingafrica.com/benin/religion/>.Blauer, Ettagale, V L Giddings, and Dorothy and Thomas Hoobler. “Clothing of African Cultures.” Fashion Encyclopedia. N.p., Web. 18 Oct <http://www.fashionencyclopedia.com/fashion_costume_culture/Early-Cultures-African/Clothing-of-African-Cultures.html >.“West Africa .” The Islamic World to The University of Calgary, Web. 18 Oct <http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/fractured/westAfrica.html>.Zahid, Ishaq. “Five Pillars of Islam .” Islam 101. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct <http://www.islam101.com/dawah/pillars.html >.“Languages of Africa .” Wikipedia . N.p., 9 Oct Web. 18 Oct <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Africa>.Matt. “Africa Religions .” Slide Share. N.p., Web. 14 Oct <http://www.slideshare.net/matt/africa-religions-presentation >.Scribner, Charles. “Christianity in Africa .” Novel Guide . N.p., Web. 18 Oct <http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/aes_01/aes_01_00085.html>. “Trade and the Spread of Islam In Africa .” Met Museum . Department of Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas , Oct Web. 18 Oct <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tsis/hd_tsis.htm >. West, April. “Ashanti Culture .” MNSU. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/oldworld/africa/ashanti_culture.html>.Tignor, Robert, et al. Worlds Together Worlds Apart. New York City: W.W. Norton & Company, Print.John Barbot, "A Description of the Coasts of North and South Guinea," in Thomas Astley and John Churchill, eds., Collection of Voyages and Travels (London, 1732).Smitha, Frank Eugene. "Queen Nzinga." Marohistory and World Report. N.p., 17 Oct Web. 21 Oct <http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h28af3-3.htm>.