Presentation on theme: "Marsh Die-back: History, Potential Causes, & Current Evidence"— Presentation transcript:
1Marsh Die-back: History, Potential Causes, & Current Evidence Karen L. McKeeU. S. Geological SurveyIrving A. MendelssohnLouisiana State UniversityMichael D. MaterneNatural Resources Conservation Service
2Historical Perspective Die-back ofSpartina marsheshas been recognizedsince 1968Coastal Studies Bulletin No. 5 / Special Sea Grant Issue /February 1970SPARTINA “DIE-BACK” IN LOUISIANA MARSHLANDSW. G. SmithCoastal Studies InstituteLouisiana State University“Spartina alterniflora marshlands in Louisiana frequently havelarge areas of standing dead stubble. These killed areas werefirst noted by the author in the Grand Isle area onNovember 10, 1968……As of December 31, 1969, no recovery was evident………”(Smith 1970)
3Salt Marsh Die-back in Louisiana Since the 1970’s more research concerningsalt marsh die-back has been conducted inLouisiana than probably anywhere else inthe world
4“Historical” Spartina alterniflora Die-back - Typical die-back of Spartina occurs in the marsh interior- These areas cannot maintain their elevation relative to sea-level rise- Our research has shown that this “historical die-back” has occurred because excessive submergence leads to sulfide accumulation, which in turn causes reduced growth and eventually plant death.
8PathogensBackground: Bacterial, fungal, or viral pathogens or insect outbreaks can cause widespread mortality of plants.Evidence for Pathogens:In Texas & Florida, a fungal involvement has been identified in connection with Spartina die-back, but infection usually opportunistic on stressed vegetation.Evidence against Pathogens:Examination of Spartina culms from LA by pathologists has so far revealed no obvious pathogens.
9HerbivoryBackground: Herbivores (nutria, waterfowl) can cause large “eat-outs” in marshes.Evidence for Herbivory: Some, but not all, die-back areas have large concentrations of snails that are eating the dead vegetation.
10HerbivoryEvidence against Herbivory: -Not all die-back areas have high densities of snails or evidence of snail feeding on live tissue.
11Herbivory Evidence against Insects: No evidence of insect outbreaks or insect damage out of the ordinary.
12Low Genetic DiversityBackground: Generally, the higher the genetic diversity the broader the ecological amplitude of a species. Changes in the environment that lead to a substructuring of populations may render a marsh more vulnerable to sudden extremes that exceed the genetic capacity of the population to adjust.
13Low Genetic Diversity Evidence: European research shows two genetic groups of Phragmitesaustralis (“deep water reed” and“land reed”), each of which may becompletely eliminated from an area bymanipulations favoring the othergenotype and preventing theestablishment of new populationsafter old ones have been destroyed.The surviving population is morelikely to experience die-back.
15Chemical Spill (e.g., petroleum) Background: Chemical spills can kill large areas of marsh in a short period of time.Evidence for Spills:There were no signs of a chemical spill in the die-back marshes.Evidence against Spills:Pattern and extent of die-back is inconsistent with this hypothesis.
16Buildup of Sulfide / Fermentative Products Background: Organic matter is generally accumulated in wetlands, and the anaerobic carbon decomposition in wetland sediments produces a range of fermentative products that are toxic to plants (organic acids and sulfide) at high enough concentrations. This process can also create a high soil oxygen demand that can stress plants by competing for their internal oxygen.
17Buildup of Sulfide /Fermentative Products Evidence for Phytotoxins:Historical die-back of Spartina alterniflora has been linked to sulfide accumulation in Louisiana marshes.Current die-back areas exhibit elevated concentrations of sulfide. However, death of plants will generate these compounds; a cause and effect relationship cannot be assumed.
18Buildup of Sulfide / Fermentative Products Evidence against Phytotoxins: Unaffected species are not more tolerant of sulfide, e.g., Avicennia germinans.
19High SalinityBackground: The recent severe drought, combined with low river flow, may have increased salinity in die-back marshes.Evidence for Salinity:Surface salinities did increase in the past year, according to records examined thus far.Porewater salinity is slightly elevated in some of the dead marshes.
20High SalinityEvidence for Salinity: More salt-tolerant species (Avicennia and Batis) have survived alongside the dead Spartina.
21High Salinity Evidence against Salinity: Measured salinities (<40 ppt) do not exceed tolerance limits of S. alterniflora.Upper Limit of Ecological Range: ~45-50 pptLethal Salinity: ppt**From Hester, Mendelssohn, & McKee (1996)
22High Salinity Evidence against Salinity: Less salt tolerant species such as Juncus roemerianus have survived in die-back areas.
23High Water LevelsBackground: Spartina alterniflora is very flood tolerant, but there are limits to its tolerance. When oxygen is cut off from the plant roots for 24 hours, the meristems (growing tips) will begin to die and the entire plant can succumb within a few days.
24High Water Levels Evidence for High Water Levels: Pattern of die-back shows that lower elevation areas (interior marsh) are experiencing extensive mortality.
25High Water Levels Evidence against High Water Levels: Other species that are equally or less flood tolerant than Spartina have survived.AvicenniagerminansDistichlis spicata
26Low Water LevelsEvidence for low water levels: Records indicate low water levels at some locations during early part of year.
27Low Water LevelsEvidence against low water levels: Low elevation sites appear to be more affected than high elevation sites.
28Interacting Environmental & Biotic Factors Background: Several factors may be interacting to cause die-back. A pre-existing stress condition may have made the plants more vulnerable to a second stress factor or a pathogen that alone would not have caused mortality.Evidence:In Louisiana, natural subsidence, sea-level rise, and sediment deficiency have been implicated in historical die-back of interior marshes.In Europe, Phragmites die-back has been linked to a combination of eutrophication, artificially stable water-levels (stagnation), and disturbance (harvesting, fire).
29SummaryFactors least likely to be involved: a chemical spill, herbivoryFactors possibly involved, but with little or no data from a broad survey of current die-back sites: pathogens, low genetic diversityFactors possibly involved, with some evidence from several sites: water level extremes, salinity, natural toxins (e.g., sulfide)