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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentation for Concepts of Genetics Ninth Edition Klug, Cummings, Spencer, Palladino Chapter 12 DNA Organization in Chromosomes Lectures by David Kass with contributions from John C. Osterman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Viral and Bacterial Chromosomes Are Relatively Simple DNA Molecules Bacterial and viral chromosomes are usually: a single nucleic acid molecule largely devoid of associated proteins much smaller than eukaryotic chromosomes Section 12.1
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chromosomes of Viruses consist of single- or double-stranded DNA or RNA. Section 12.1
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Section 12.1 Bacterial chromosomes are double-stranded DNA and are compacted into a nucleoid. DNA in bacteria may be associated with HU and H1 DNA- binding proteins.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Supercoiling Facilitates Compaction of the DNA of Viral and Bacterial Chromosomes Most closed circular DNA molecules in bacteria are slightly underwound and supercoiled. Section 12.2
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Topoisomerases cut one or both DNA strands and wind or unwind the helix before resealing the ends. Section 12.2
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Specialized Chromosomes Reveal Variations in the Organization of DNA Polytene chromosomes and lampbrush chromosomes are very large and can be visualized by light microscopy. Section 12.3
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Polytene chromosomes: have distinctive banding patterns represent paired homologs are composed of many DNA strands Section 12.3
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Polytene chromosomes have puff regions where the DNA has uncoiled and are visible manifestations of a high level of gene activity. Section 12.3
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lampbrush chromosomes - large and have extensive DNA looping. Found in oocytes in the diplotene stage of meiosis. Section 12.3
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. DNA Is Organized into Chromatin in Eukaryotes Eukaryotic chromosomes are complexed into a nucleoprotein structure called chromatin. Chromatin is bound up in nucleosomes with histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Section 12.4
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Electron microscopic observations of chromatin have revealed its fibers are composed of a linear array of spherical particle. Section 12.4
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Nucleosomes are condensed several times to form the intact chromatids. Section 12.4
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chromatin remodeling must occur to allow the DNA to be accessed by DNA binding proteins. Section 12.4
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Histone tails are important for histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. Section 12.4
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Euchromatin is uncoiled and active, whereas heterochromatin remains condensed and is inactive. Section 12.4
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chromosome Banding Differentiates Regions along the Mitotic Chromosome Section 12.5
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure In C-banding, only the centromeres are stained.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure G-banding is due to differential staining along the length of each chromosome.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Eukaryotic Chromosomes Demonstrate Complex Organization Characterized by Repetitive DNA Repetitive DNA sequences are repeated many times within eukaryotic chromosomes. Section 12.6
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.14
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Satellite DNA is highly repetitive and consists of short repeated sequences. Section 12.6
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Centromeres are the primary constrictions along eukaryotic chromosomes mediate chromosomal migration during mitosis and meiosis res2.jpg
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Telomeric DNA sequences consist of short tandem repeats that contribute to the stability and integrity of the chromosome. Section 12.6
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Moderately repetitive DNA includes: variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) minisatellites microsatellites Section 12.6
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Short interspersed elements (SINES) and long interspersed elements (LINES) are dispersed throughout the genome rather than tandemly repeated, and constitute over 1/3 of the human genome. These transposable elements are generated via an RNA intermediate and are referred to as retrotransposons. Section 12.6
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Vast Majority of a Eukaryotic Genome Does Not Encode Functional Genes Only a small portion of the eukaryotic genome (2%–10%) constitute protein- encoding genes. There are also a large number of single- copy noncoding regions, some of which are pseudogenes. Section 12.7
Genome size increases (roughly) with evolutionary complexity of organism OrganismGenome (kb)Form Virus MS24RNA Virus 50Linear DNA Other viruses5-300Circular.
The Presentation of Group 3… Title: Members of the group: Muhammad Jefri bin Mohd Yusof (A ) Noor Khairatul Azni binti Mat (A ) Chai Lee Chin.
Eukaryotic Chromatin Structure 1.Chromatin structure is based on successive levels of DNA packing THE ORGANIZATION AND CONTROL OF EUKARYOTIC GENOMES.
Genome Organisation II Eukaryotic genomes are completely different in their organisation compared to prokaryotic, and also much bigger Their genes are.
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DNA Chapter 16. Griffith Streptococcus pneumoniae - bacteria that causes pneumonia in mammals R strain – harmless S strain – pathogenic mixed heat-killed.
DNA and Cell Reproduction. Structure of DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA is one of the two nucleic acids –DNA –RNA It is composed of repeating subunits (monomers)
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell.
Genome Organisation I Bacterial chromosome is a large (4 Mb in E coli) circular molecule Bacterial cells may also contain small circular chromosomes called.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentation for Concepts of Genetics Ninth Edition Klug, Cummings, Spencer, Palladino Chapter.
Control of gene expression. Every cell has at least one chromosome consisting of a DNA molecule. Each chromosome contains genes – pieces of a DNA molecule.
Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression The functions of the three parts of an operon. The role f repressor genes in operons. The impact of DNA methylation.
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Cellular Reproduction and DNA Offspring receive their traits from their parents- but sometimes the child looks nothing like the parents.
Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 12 Molecular Genetics Section 1: DNA: The Genetic Material Section 2: Replication of DNA Section 3: DNA, RNA,
Regulation of Gene Expression 11. Chapter 11 Regulation of Gene Expression Key Concepts 11.1 Several Strategies Are Used to Regulate Gene Expression 11.2.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 21.1 Chapter 21 Genomes and their Evolution.
Cell Division. 4 day old mouse cells Section 1 Vocabulary 1. Cell cycle 2. Interphase 3. Mitosis 4. Cytokinesis 5. Chromosome 6. Chromatin.
MOLECULAR GENETICS. YOU MUST KNOW… THE STRUCTURE OF DNA THE MAJOR STEPS TO REPLICATION THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, AND TRANSLATION.
Mitosis and Cytokinesis B-2.6 Summarize the characteristics of the cell cycle: interphase (called G1, S, G2); the phases of mitosis (called prophase, metaphase,
CHAPTER 20 DNA TECHNOLOGY AND GENOMICS Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section A: DNA Cloning 1.DNA technology.
D loops (mitochondria and chloroplast DNA) RNA polymerase transcribes a primer, whose 3 ends are generated by cleavage by an endonuclease at several discrete.
Chromosomes and gene regulation DNA is just information - a blueprint No use unless you know the rules for using the information DNA is organised (in chromosomes)
DNA: The Genetic Material Chapter 16 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance.
By Dustin Heuterman and Monica Reeder. The main component of the genome in most bacteria is one double-stranded circular DNA molecule that is associated.
AYESHA M. KHAN SPRING 2013 GENERAL GENETICS. Genetic information in different life forms Lec-3 Despite their tremendous diversity, living organisms.
Cell Growth and Division Mitosis and Meiosis. Cell Growth When an organism grows, the number of cells increase but the size of each cell remains small.
~Ch 18-21~ Jeopardy Categories Viruses Bacterial Applications Chromatin Structure & Gene Expression Biotech Genetic Base of Development Vocab
Site-specific recombination Site-specific recombination alters gene order, which would not happen during general recombination.
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