Presentation on theme: "Economic crisis and innovation"— Presentation transcript:
1Economic crisis and innovation Banca d'Italia lunedì 25 novembreEconomic crisis and innovationAndrea FilippettiLondon School of Economics and Political Science, andItalian National Research Council, CNR
2Creative destruction or creative accumulation? Schumpeter 1911: economic environment characterized by fierce competition in which the new firm is the driver of innovation activity supported by the creation of new credit by the banking systemSchumpeter 1942: emphasized the role of well established large firms; market structure has shifted into oligopolistic competition
4stagnation and innovation for recovery overlap: “at the same time that wide areas of current economic interests are gripped by stagnation, creative progress is building in new areas of activity […] in the technological stalemate, the economy becomes structurally ready for basic innovations”
5The SPRU response: It is innovation diffusion that matters! Freeman, Clark and Soete (1982)
6In a Schumpeterian vein, there are winners and losers And the existence of losers is the guarantee that there will be some winnersNations, industries and companies that will manage to introduce and adapt to the technological change are likely to grow and prosperThose that will not be able to do so, will be most affected by the economic crisisImplicit assumption: barriers to enter new technological fields are low
7A dissenting voice: Keith Pavitt Competences are generated in a cumulative patternThis applies for international patterns of technological accumulationIt also applies at to company levelLittle possibility for new entrants when facing large innovative firms
8Technological Accumulation To innovate, companies need to develop competences, which are created through experience. Innovators of the future are likely to be the innovators of the past Persistence is the key factor in generating successful innovations Also nations generally continue to innovate in the areas where they are traditionally strong Management literature…
9Are creative destruction and technological accumulation sensitive to the business cycle? During economic expansion, innovative firms lead technological change also by increasing their investment in innovation (supporting technological accumulation)Economic crises generate turbulence and some new entrants are willing to spend more to innovate, also in blue sky explorations (creative destruction). Resources made available can be used for the purpose
11An application with micro data on panel analysis Economic crisis and innovation: Is destruction prevailing over accumulation?Daniele Archibugi, Andrea Filippetti, Marion Frenz
12Our argumentthere is a general consensus on the fact that the most innovative firms are also more likely to persist in innovatingfirms with a more agile/flexible structure might take better advantage of changing environments and new market opportunitiesthe unique environment of the current economic crisis might challenge innovation in a cumulative fashion and lead to an environment more closely related to creative destruction
134 hypotheses Hypothesis 1. During a crisis innovation investment concentrates further in those firms that were alreadyhighly innovative before the crisisHypothesis 2.Increased investment in innovation during the crisis is more strongly correlatedwith two groups of firms – (a) those previously classified as great innovatorsand (b) those classified as fast growing new entrantsHypothesis 3Increase in investment in innovation before and during the crisis is positivelyassociated with internal R&D, firm size and firm internal financial resourcesHypothesis 4.Firms that follow mixed strategies of exploitation and exploration– ambidextrous firms – are more likely to increase investment in innovationduring the crisis compared with before
14Data: The UK Innovation Surveys under 2,500 enterprises that responded to the latest three waves of the UK version of the CIS (2004, 2006 and 2008)we analyse a balanced panel with observations at three points in time (T=3).
15The dependent variables N. of firmsMeanTotal innovation expenditure per employee in 2006 in £000s2,4792.44Total innovation expenditure per employee in 2008 in £000s2,4852.04we require a measure of the change in innovation relatedinvestment before and during the crisisDV1. We compute the change in 2008 compared with 2006 and use this as the change ininnovation expenditure during the crisis.DV2. Before the crisis is the change in innovation investment in 2006 compared with 2004
16Log change in innovation expenditure in 2006 and 2008 Variable NameDescriptionHypothesis1Log change in innovation expenditure in 2006 and 2008Log of innovation related investment compared to previous periodDependent variable2Log total innovation expenditure in 2004 and 2006Log of innovation expenditure in the previous periodControl variable3Great innovators in 2004Dummy variable. Great innovators are enterprises that introduced new-to-the-market goods and services in 2004Testing H1 and H2 - Great innovators increase innovation expenditure during the crisis4Newly established 2000Dummy variable. Enterprises established between 2000 and 2004, value 1, others 05Growth of newly established firms in 2006 and 2008Log of the change in turnover compared to previous period for new firms as defined in (4). This variable takes a value of zero for firms established before 2000Testing H2 – Fast growing new enterprises increase innovation expenditure during the crisis6Internal R&D in 2004 and 2006Dummy variable. Enterprises with internal R&D expenditure in the previous period, value 1, others 0Testing H3 – Enterprises with internal R&D increase innovation expenditure during the crisis7Log employees in 2004 and 2006Size of the firm according to the number of employees in the previous periodTesting H3 – Large enterprises increase innovation expenditure during the crisis8Availability of finance in 2004 and 2006Dummy variable. Firms which gave in the previous period medium or high importance to the availability of finance as innovation obstacle, value 1, firms that gave no or low importance, value 0Testing H3 – Enterprises with internal financial resources increase innovation expenditure during the crisis9Log sales per employee in 2004 and 2006Log of sales per employee in the previous periodTesting H3 – Enterprises with higher sales per employee (as proxy of available internal resources) increase innovation expenditure during the crisis
17International markets in 2006 and 2008 10Exploration in 2006 and 2008Dummy variable. Firms in the upper two quartiles in the sum of the scores across four-point likert scales in the question: “how important were each of the following factors in your decision to innovate: (i) increase range of goods or services; (ii) entering new markets or increased market share”, value 1, others 0.Control variable11Exploitation in 2006 and 2008Dummy variable. Firms in the upper to quartiles in the sum of the scores across four-point likert scales in the question: “ how important were each of the following factors in your decision to innovate: (i) improving quality of goods or services; (ii) improving flexibility for producing goods or services; (iii) increasing capacity for producing goods or services; (iv) reducing costs per unit produced12Ambidexterity in 2006 and 2008Dummy variable. A firm is in the upper quartiles with respect to both - exploration and exploitation (see 11 and 12), value 1, others 0Testing H4 – Enterprises that follow mixed strategies of exploitation and exploration – ambidextrous enterprises, increase innovation expenditure during the crisis13IPRs in 2004 and 2006Dummy variable. Firms that declared to use IPR protection in the previous period, value 1, others 014Skills in 2006 and 2008Log of the proportion of employees that hold a degree at BA/BSc level or above.15International markets in 2006 and 2008Dummy variable. Enterprises that operate outside the UK, value 1, others 0
18Innovation expenditure of great innovators and other firms, 2006 and 2008 n. of firmsPercentageShare of innovation exp. 2006Share of innovation exp. 2008Average innovation exp in £000sAverage innovation exp in £000sChange in average innovation expAll other firms2,161870.790.63563413-0.27Great innovators324130.210.379811,599Total2,4851001.00618568-0.08Hypothesis 1. During a crisis innovation investmentconcentrates further in those firms that were alreadyhighly innovative before the crisis
19Regression results Innovation behaviour before and during the crisis. DV: change in innovation expenditure before and during the crisisbefore the crisisduring the crisisGreat Innovators 2004not significant+ (**)Newly established 2000- (***)- (*)Fast grow. new firms tIn-house R&D t-1Log employees t-1Availability finance t-1Sales per employee t-1Explorative strategy t0.31*0.6**Exploitative strategy t0.38*
20Conclusions:Firms in our sample reduce innovation expenditure in 2008 by 8 percent compared to No doubt that the crisis has brought some “destruction”strong support for creative accumulation. Firms identified as the great innovators in 2004 are responsible for a larger share of innovation expenditure in 2008being a great innovator does not predict increase in innovation investment before the crisis, but it does during the crisis
21... continuedanother category of firms which is gaining momentum during the crisis: they are the fast growing new firmsthis group of firms does not show an above average behaviour in 2006 but it starts to increase expenditure during the crisis.
22... continuedsize and economic performance play a less important role.presence of in-house R&D activity becomes a major predictor of increase in innovation expenditure during the crisisfirm’s strategy, pursuing an explorative strategy (including looking into new markets), becomes relatively more important.
23Innovation persistence and the institutional setting
24National Innovation System: the founding fathers Freeman, Lundvall, Nelson
25National systems of innovation GovernmentScience & technologyinstitutions;e.g. R&D labs, unisFinancial institutionse.g. banks,venture capitalistsFirmsIndustrye.g., competitors,suppliersEducationinstitutionsSource: Smith (2006), p. 295
26do specific configurations of NSI provide a comparative institutional advantage in times of crisis? Thus the first general question at stake is whether structure matters vis-à-vis demand during a big recession
27Data and methodology (1) Innobarometer 2009 (European Commission) – firm level survey on more than 5000 firms across Europe – April 2009Question no. 1: “Compared to 2006, has the amount spent by your firm on all innovation activities in 2008 increased, decreased, or stayed approximately the same?”Question no. 2 “In the last six months [November 2008 to April 2009] has your company taken one of the following actions [increased, decreased or maintain the innovation spending] as a direct result of the economic downturn?”
28Data and methodology (2) European Innovation Scoreboard 2008 (EIS)(European Commission) aims at measuring and comparing the innovation performance at country level based on a composite indicator:The EIS Summary Innovation Index: composed of 29 variables addressing 7 dimension of a country’ system of innovation
29Firms’ innovation investments: comparison between the three years period and the first six months of 2009
30Is the crisis impairing the catching-up process of innovation capabilities?
31The impact of the current recession on firms’ innovation investments
32Change in the behaviour of the firm related to its innovation investment as a response to the crisis vis-à-vis the period before the crisis
34Operationalizing the national innovation system point out those country-specific features which have a role in offsetting the cyclical behaviour of the firms, and therefore that have a positive influence on persistency of innovation investment.The following different characteristics of the NSI have been derived from the EIS:i. the stock of knowledge;ii. the quality of the human resources; Iii. the depth of the financial and credit system;iv. the specialization of the country
38Is innovation cyclical or persistent? One of the most significant results of our analysis is that about sixty-five per cent of the firms declare to have kept their innovation investment unchanged in spite of the crisisThis somehow confirms the importance of:technological accumulation (stressed, among others, by Nelson and Winter, 1982; Grandstrand et al., 1997; Patel and Pavitt, 1997),and lends substantial support to the persistency of innovative activities over time (Geroski et al., 1997; Cefis and Orsenigo, 2001).
39The uneven effects of the crisis and the role of National Systems of Innovation the crisis has not been of the same magnitude across all European countries. On the contrary, we have shown that the most negatively affected by the downturn are those EU New Member States which were catching up over the periodWe have attempted to explain this evidence on the ground of the structural characteristics of the NSI and the role played by domestic demand and export.The structural characteristics of the NSI seem to play a more relevant role than demand.
40The role of the institutional framework Innovation, labour market institutions and skills
43Labour market institutions different institutional arrangements have been identified namely along three main dimensions:(i.) unemployment security,(ii.) employment protection, and(iii.) vocational and educational training (VET).
44Labour attachmentthe attachment of factors of production to a firm favors incremental innovation and discourages radical innovationCMEs specialize in incremental innovation because employment protection, low inter-firm mobility, insider control of firms and weak markets for corporate controlLMEs are said to specialize in radical innovation because the factors of production can be rapidly mobilized for a promising new project, and de-mobilized if it fails
452 types of attachment mechanisms Institutional constraints: i.e. EP - that make it costly for the firm to shed labor; this type of exogenous attachment encourages investment in specific skill and generates ongoing teams of skilled production workers (exogenous)attachment is not imposed institutionally through EP, but created endogenously by skill. A worker with experience in a particular firm, or a team of such workers, may generate for a firm a quasi-rent – a situation in which the worker is more valuable when employed by the firm than in the worker’s next-best employment
50conclusionsRR (our measure of unemployment protection) and VET are complementary.So are EP and VET.When both forms of income insurance are low, VET is actually associated with lower levels of innovation persistence
51income insurance / VET systems have a comparative advantage in the production of specific skills, this supports the view that specific skills are better for sustaining innovation during a crisis than general skills.We find no substantial difference between the performance of flexicurity (high RR, high VET) and non-liberal (strong EP, high VET) systems.