Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Effective Presentations D. Gordon E. Robertson, PhD Emeritus Professor Biomechanics, Laboratory, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Effective Presentations D. Gordon E. Robertson, PhD Emeritus Professor Biomechanics, Laboratory, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa,"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Effective Presentations D. Gordon E. Robertson, PhD Emeritus Professor Biomechanics, Laboratory, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada D. Gordon E. Robertson, PhD Emeritus Professor Biomechanics, Laboratory, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada

3 Contents Effective presentations should consist of five parts. 1.Introduction 2.Background/Theory/Review of Literature 3.Methods 4.Results & Discussion 5.Conclusions/Future Directions

4 Introduction Must answer the question why is/was this research conducted or necessary Includes purpose of the study Hypothesis(es) being tested Short and long term objectives may be identified What is the “question”?

5 Background Includes “essential” review of the literature Should include basis (thesis) for any hypotheses Keep it brief Theoretical framework may be presented if necessary

6 Methods Sample size and population described−give statistical power, if known Show figure of experimental setup Outline of methods, refer to literature if possible Describe experimental protocol In a proposal include statistical methods, in a defense save these for results and discussion Another researcher should be able to duplicate study from description

7 Results Consists of tables, figures and descriptive statistics Be sure to include all relevant labels and units of measure Identify any codes or abbreviations used in figures and tables Point out most significant results (only a few if there are time constraints)

8 Discussion Interpret the results in light of the objectives and hypotheses outlined in the Introduction Presumably you can answer the question(s) posed in the Introduction Present and interpret the major statistical findings especially any “significant differences” Relate your study to the existing literature

9 Conclusions List the most important statistically significant findings Any statement must be supported by the data you collected Do not extrapolate your findings Avoid weak statements (may, might, seems, etc.) Use affirmative language and active verbs Should answer the “question”

10 Visual Presentation The following slides show various good and bad layouts.

11 Too Many Figures and Cluttered Placement Instrumentation in Biomechanics –Photocells and timers –Videography –Electromyographs –Accelerometers

12 Slightly Better Instrumentation in Biomechanics –Photocells and timers –Videography –Electromyographs –Accelerometers

13 Keep Graphics to Maximum of Four or Five Delsys electrodes Mega system Noraxon system Bortec system

14 Too Cluttered? EMG cables Force platform Cine or Video camera Control points Keyboard Monitor Subject Trial number

15 Better EMG cables Force platform Cine or Video camera

16 Too Many Levels of Bullets Angular position –Protractor –Goniometer »Manual »Electrical »Photo-optical Linear acceleration –Accelerometry »Strain-gauge »Piezoelectric »Piezoresistive Calibrated Uncalibrated –Videography »VHS »Beta »CCD Miniature accelerometers Manual goniometer

17 Better Linear position –Ruler, tape measure, optical Angular position –Protractor, inclinometer, goniometer Linear acceleration –Accelerometry, videography Angular acceleration –Videography Miniature accelerometers Manual goniometer

18 Too Much Text and Fonts Too Small Podiatric clinicians suggest that FHL can result in slight disruptions of the inverted pendulum's centre of gravity (CoG) through the sagittal plane (Winter, 1995; Dananberg, 1986, 1993). According to clinicians, FHL leads to compensatory postural changes such as a forward lean to restore the pendulum (Figure 3). Clinicians suggest this FHL compensatory action may be a contributor to low back pain. The podiatric community uses custom foot orthoses (CFO) with the Kinetic Wedge modification (Langer) to improve MTP joint function and gait posture of individuals with FHL (Figure 5). The Kinetic Wedge was designed to place the first ray in a greater plantar flexed position and the proximal phalanx more dorsiflexed relative to the first metatarsal. Clinicians believed that the limitation of the joint is bypassed with the joint at this initial position, thereby increasing the ability of the first MTP joint to dorsiflex (Figure 4). Figure 3. Compensatory forward lean

19 About Right? Causes of motion Forces and moments of force Work, energy and power Impulse and momentum Inverse Dynamics derives forces and moments from kinematics and body segment parameters (mass, centre of gravity, and moment of inertia)

20 Background Too Complex and Too Distracting Weight (W) Ground reaction force (F g )

21 Better but still Too Distracting Weight (W) Ground reaction force (F g )

22 Use a Simple Background and Maintain Throughout Weight (W) Ground reaction force (F g )

23 Background can be Dark or Light Weight (W) Ground reaction force (F g )

24 Transitions should be Simple and Consistent Weight (W) Ground reaction force (F g )

25 Use a Different Transition for Effect but Sparingly Weight (W) Ground reaction force (F g )

26 Keep the Fonts Simple (presentation computer may not have your font installed) Female subject Laboratory walkway Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike ITO = ipsilateral toe-off CFS = contralateral foot-strike CTO = contralateral toe-off

27 Many Presentations use San Serif Only Female subject Laboratory walkway Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike ITO = ipsilateral toe-off CFS = contralateral foot-strike CTO = contralateral toe-off

28 Others use San Serif for body but Serif for Headings Female subject Laboratory walkway Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike ITO = ipsilateral toe-off CFS = contralateral foot-strike CTO = contralateral toe-off

29 Use Text Colours for Emphasis (One or Two, Three is Maximum) Female subject Laboratory walkway Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike ITO = ipsilateral toe-off CFS = contralateral foot-strike CTO = contralateral toe-off

30 Use Colour Coordinated Templates High Contrast (Text/Background) {not like this one} Female subject Laboratory walkway Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike ITO = ipsilateral toe-off CFS = contralateral foot-strike CTO = contralateral toe-off

31 Textbooks use Sans Serif (e.g., Arial) for Titles, Serif (e.g., Times) for Text Female subject Laboratory walkway Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike ITO = ipsilateral toe-off CFS = contralateral foot-strike CTO = contralateral toe-off

32 Proper Font Size is Important (24 to 32 points, Below are 18 and 14) Female subject Laboratory walkway Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike ITO = ipsilateral toe-off CFS = contralateral foot-strike CTO = contralateral toe-off

33 Should be Approximately One Slide per Minute The use of dual slide projectors (now uncommon) is NOT recommended. If used, make sure there are two slides for each transition, otherwise you may get out of synchrony.

34 35mm Slides It is advisable to number your slides to ensure correct ordering and to permit quick loading. Use of “thumbprints” are recommended to ensure that slides are projected correctly. Slides go in projector upside down. Thumbprints don’t actually appear in the slide. 35

35 Clipart Text only presentations are boring. Clipart adds interest but can be distracting. Don’t use too many–one or two.

36 Tables and Histograms Tables should be used to summarize numerical data. Histograms can be used if there are too few numbers for a table.

37 Table Too Detailed

38 Still Too Many and Difficult to Read

39 Still Too Many but Readable

40 About Right or Less?

41 Keep Number of Bars Small

42 Background Box Helps

43 Keep Figures Big

44 Including Text Focuses Your Audience Positive work by flexors to swing leg Positive work by extensors to extend thigh Negative work by flexors to control extension Time Trial: 2SFN3 Ang. velocity Moment Power ITO IFS CTOCFS ITO Flexion Extension Flexors Extensors Concentric Eccentric H1 H3 H2

45 Colours Help to Distinguish Different Items in Figures Positive work by flexors to swing leg Positive work by extensors to extend thigh Negative work by flexors to control extension Time Trial: 2SFN3 Ang. velocity Moment Power ITO IFS CTO CFS ITO Flexion Extension Flexors Extensors Concentric Eccentric H1 H3 H2

46 Include Labels and Units in Figures and Tables Time (s) Power (W) Moment (N.m) A ng. Vel. (rad/s) Trial: 2SFN3 Ang. velocity Moment Power CFS ITO IFS CTO CFS ITO Flexion Extension Flexors Extensors Concentric Eccentric Positive work by flexors to swing leg Positive work by extensors to extend thigh Negative work by flexors to control extension H1 H3 H2

47 PowerPoint Slides (Permit Animations and Multimedia) Bulleted text can be sequenced. So can other elements such as figures, tables and arrows. If text and arrows are synchronized the text must be in separate windows and grouped. If left ungrouped you need to press a key for each element to appear. 5

48 PowerPoint Slides (Permit Animations and Multimedia) Bulleted text can be sequenced. So can other elements such as figures, tables and arrows. If text and arrows are synchronized the text must be in separate windows and grouped. If left ungrouped you need to press a key for each element to appear. 5 Don’t use too many effects, unless there is a good reason.

49 Ungrouped Elements Require Extra Mouse Clicks Dorsiflexors produce dorsiflexion during swing Plantar flexors control dorsiflexion Large burst of power by plantar flexors for push- off A1 A2

50 Grouped Elements are More Efficient Negative work by extensors to control flexion at push-off Burst of power to cushion landing Negative work by flexors to control extension prior to foot-strike Trial: 2SFN3 Ang. velocity Moment Power CFS ITO IFS CTO CFS ITO Extension Flexion Extensors Flexors Concentric Eccentric K1 K2 K3 K4

51 Be Sure to Test the Animation Thoroughly Time (s) Power (W) Moment (N.m) A ng. Vel. (rad/s) Trial: 2SFN3 Ang. velocity Moment Power CFS ITO IFS CTO CFS ITO Flexion Extension Flexors Extensors Concentric Eccentric Positive work by flexors to swing leg Positive work by extensors to extend thigh Negative work by flexors to control extension H1 H3 H2

52 Multimedia Items Add Interest but Create Large Files Be sure the file is included with your presentation Zip disks, CD- ROMs and USB (Pen) drives can hold large files Keep the clip short and allow continuous play

53 Avoid Too Many Types of Media Video Overheads Handouts Slides Computer projections Chalkboards Whiteboards

54 PowerPoint Movement Keyboard Shortcuts F1 = help with shortcut Esc = end show Home = first slide End = last slide N, Up, Right, PageUp, Spacebar, Enter or LeftMouse = forward one slide P, Down, Left, PageDown, Backspace = backward one slide number and Enter = go to slide number

55 Other Keyboard Shortcuts Right Mouse click = menu A = hide/show arrow B = black screen W = white screen Ctrl-A = activate arrow Ctrl-P = activate pen Ctrl-H = hide pen or arrow E = erase pen drawings

56 Questions? Answers? Comments?


Download ppt "Effective Presentations D. Gordon E. Robertson, PhD Emeritus Professor Biomechanics, Laboratory, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google