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IP over ATM Integrated Network Services Almerindo Graziano.

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Presentation on theme: "IP over ATM Integrated Network Services Almerindo Graziano."— Presentation transcript:

1 IP over ATM Integrated Network Services Almerindo Graziano

2 Introduction Characteristics of IP and ATM IP over ATM - Overlay Model Data encapsulation CLIP NHRP LANE MPOA Conclusions

3 ATM ATM is connection oriented IP is connectionless ATM has built-in QoS support IP uses best-effort Two approaches –Connections established on demand –IP traffic is carried over pre-configured circuits Both approaches have pros and cons

4 IP over ATM Overlay Model ATM is treated as a Data Link layer on which IP runs –Classical IP over ATM (CLIP) –Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) –LAN Emulation (LANE) –Multiprotocol Over ATM (MPOA)

5 CLIP All members of a LIS (host or router) are under the same administrative control A LIS is given ONE IP subnet address CLIP

6 Classical IP over ATM The ATM network is divided into a number of Logical IP Subnet (LIS) Systems within a LIS communicate through direct ATM connections –Each LIS has an ARP server called ATMARP –ARP queries are sent to the ATMARP server Systems in different LIS communicate through a router –A router is a member of multiple LIS

7 ATMARP server There is one for each LIS –It holds a table of A wants to communicate with B and it knows B’s IP address –A send an ARP_REQUEST to the ATMARP server –If the IP address is found an ARP_REPLY is sent –Otherwise an ARP_NACK packet is sent

8 Classical IP Over ATM H3 H2 H5 H4 H6 ATM ARP server H1 R4 R3 R1 R5 R2 LIS 1 LIS 3 LIS 2 ATM Network

9 Data Encapsulation How do we carry different protocols How do we identify different protocols –VC multiplexing –LLC/SNAP –TULIP –TUNIC

10 VC multiplexing VC multiplexing or null encapsulation A different VC is required to carry each layer 3 protocol –One VC carries the IP protocol –One VC carries the IPX protocol etc.. Not very suitable in a multiprotocol environment

11 LLC/SNAP encapsulation Similar to the IEEE 802 Multiple protocols can be carried in the same VC Less expensive Can we do better than this? –Once established a VC, we don’t actually need the IP header

12 TULIP/TUNIC TULIP (TCP an UDP over Lightweight IP) –Only the layer 4 protocol identifier is kept TUNIC (TCP and UDP over Nonexistent IP) Connection –The IP header is eliminated –A different VC is created for each layer 4 protocol

13 CLIP Limitations Inter-LIS communication has to go through a router –Both parties are attached to same ATM network Can be a problem in an ATM WAN –NHRP –MPOA

14 NHRP NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol) NHRP servers and NHRP client Each LIS has at least 1 NHRP server –A server can serve more than 1 LIS –A server has a table of Every ES is a NHRP client

15 NHRP For intra-LIS communication, an NHRP server works as an ATMARP server –It resolves IP addresses into ATM addresses For inter-LIS communication, NHSs are interconnected to exchange NHRP queries –When an NHS cannot solve an IP address, it forwards the query to another NHS –If the destination host is not part of the same ATM network, the NHS provides the address of the egress router –Intermediate NHSs store NHRP replies into their cache

16 NHRP H3 H2 H5 H4 H6 ATM ARP server H1 R4 R3 R1 R5 R2 LIS 1 LIS 3 LIS 2 ATM Network NHS

17 LANE LAN technologies such as Ethernet are widely used However, new applications require higher bandwidth and QoS support LANE (LAN Emulation) –Allows ATM to coexist with legacy LANs –Allows ATM to be gradually introduced into existing legacy LANs –Emulates IEEE 802 LANs without any change to upper layer protocols

18 Legacy LANs Connectionless MAC –ATM is connection oriented Broadcast transmission –Difficult to achieve in ATM No guaranteed QoS –In-built support in ATM

19 LANE entities LEC (LAN Emulation Client) LES (LAN Emulation Server) LECS (LAN Emulation Configuration Server) BUS (Broadcast and Unknown Server)

20 LEC Runs on an ATM station and simulates an Ethernet or Token Ring network Encapsulates upper layer protocols into ELAN frames Decapsulate incoming ELAN frames into upper layer protocol data unit (e.g. IP packets)

21 LES and BUS Every ELAN has a LES –It acts as a coordinator and resolves MAC addresses into ATM addresses –LECs register with the LES giving BUS –Used to emulate broadcast feature of a legacy LAN –Packet sent to the BUS are sent to all LECs in the ELAN –It is used before a direct connection is established between two LECs

22 LECS More than one ELAN can run on an ATM network A LECS assigns LECs to their ELAN –When a station starts up it queries the LECS to find out its LES –The station then registers with the LES –The BUS address is determined through an LE_ARP with a MAC address of all 1s

23 Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages –Higher speed (not completely true) –Allows the creation of multiple VLANs Disadvantages –It hides QoS features of ATM –With LANEv2 a LEC can provide 8 levels of QoS to higher layers, each with a different VC

24 MPOA Communication over multiple sub-networks requires routers –Bottleneck –A connection is set up with router and then from the router to the destination Combination of LANE and NHRP –Aims at optimal, direct communication between end systems without crossing any router

25 MPOA MPOA (Multi-Protocol Over ATM) –ATM hosts –Edge devices such as switches, routers etc.. MPOA is built on top of LANE –Intra-LANE traffic follows LANE specification –Inter-LANE traffic is optimized by integrating NHRP functionalities

26 MPOA MPOA Client (MPC) MPOA Server (MPS)

27 ATM Network H1H2 H6H5 H4H3H2H2 ELAN 1 ELAN 2 R MPOA

28 Conclusions Problems with IP over ATM Overlay Model Integration with legacy systems –LANE CLIP, NHRP, MPOA

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