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Molecular Biology Fourth Edition

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1 Molecular Biology Fourth Edition
Lecture PowerPoint to accompany Molecular Biology Fourth Edition Robert F. Weaver Chapter 13 Chromatin Structure and Its Effects on Transcription Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 13.1 Histones Eukaryotic cells contain 5 kinds of histones
H2A H2B H3 H4 Each histone type isn’t homogenous Gene reiteration Posttranslational modification Source: Panyim and Chalkley, Arch. Biochem. & Biophys. 130, 1969, f. 6A, p.343.

3 Properties of Histones
Abundant proteins whose mass in nuclei nearly equals that of DNA Pronounced positive charge at neutral pH Most are well-conserved from one species to another Not single copy genes, repeated many times Some copies are identical Others are quite different H4 has only had 2 variants ever reported

4 13.2 Nucleosomes Chromosomes are long, thin molecules that will tangle if not carefully folded Folding occurs in several ways First order of folding is the nucleosome X-ray diffraction has shown strong repeats of structure at 100Å intervals This spacing approximates the nucleosome spaced at 110Å intervals

5 Histones in the Nucleosome
Chemical cross-linking in solution: H3 to H4 H2A to H2B H3 and H4 exist as a tetramer (H3-H4)2 Chromatin is composed of roughly equal masses of DNA and histones Corresponds to 1 histone octamer per 200 bp of DNA Octamer composed of: 2 each H2A, H2B, H3, H4 1 each H1

6 H1 and Chromatin Treatment of chromatin with trypsin or high salt buffer removes histone H1 This treatment leaves chromatin looking like “beads-on-a-string” The beads named nucleosomes Core histones form a ball with DNA wrapped around the outside DNA on outside minimizes amount of DNA bending H1 also lies on the outside of the nucleosome

7 Nucleosome Structure Central (H3-H4)2 core attached to H2A-H2B dimers
Grooves on surface define a left-hand helical ramp – a path for DNA winding DNA winds almost twice around the histone core condensing DNA length by 6- to 7-X Core histones contain a histone fold: 3 a-helices linked by 2 loops Extended tail of abut 28% of core histone mass Tails are unstructured

8 The 30-nm Fiber Second order of chromatin folding produces a fiber 30 nm in diameter The string of nucleosomes condenses to form the 30-nm fiber in a solution of increasing ionic strength This condensation results in another six- to seven-fold condensation of the nucleosome itself Four nucleosomes condensing into the 30-nm fiber form a zig-zag structure

9 Formation of the 30-nm Fiber
Two stacks of nucleosomes form a left-handed helix Two helices of polynucleosomes Zig-zags of linker DNA Role of histone H1? 30-nm fiber can’t form without H1 H1 crosslinks to other H1 more often than to core histones

10 Higher Order Chromatin Folding
30-nm fibers account for most of chromatin in a typical interphase nucleus Further folding is required in structures such as the mitotic chromosomes Model favored for such higher order folding is a series of radial loops Source: Adapted from Marsden, M.P.F. and U.K. Laemmli, Metaphase chromosome structure: Evidence of a radial loop model. Cell 17:856, 1979.

11 Relaxing Supercoiling in Chromatin Loops
When histones are removed, 30-nm fibers and nucleosomes disappear Leaves supercoiled DNA duplex Helical turns are superhelices, not ordinary double helix DNA is nicked to relax

12 13.3 Chromatin Structure and Gene Activity
Histones, especially H1, have a repressive effect on gene activity in vitro Two families of 5S rRNA genes studied are oocyte and somatic genes Oocyte genes are expressed only in oocytes Somatic genes are expressed both in oocytes and somatic cells Somatic genes form more stable complexes with transcription factors

13 Transcription Factors and Histones Control the 5S rRNA
Genes active by TFIIIs preventing formation of nucleosome stable complexes with internal control region Stable complexes require histone H1 and exclude TFIIIs once formed so that genes are repressed

14 Effects of Histones on Transcription of Class II Genes
Core histones assemble nucleosome cores on naked DNA Transcription of reconstituted chromatin with an average of 1 nucleosome / 200 bp DNA exhibits 75% repression relative to naked DNA Remaining 25% is due to promoter sites not covered by nucleosome cores

15 Histone H1 and Transcription
Histone H1 causes further repression of template activity, in addition to that of core histones H1 repression can be counteracted by transcription factors Sp1 and GAL4 act as both: Antirepressors preventing histone repressions Transcription activators GAGA factor: Binds to GA-rich sequences in the Krüppel promoter An antirepressor – preventing repression by histones

16 Model of Transcriptional Activation
Source: Adapted from Laybourn, P.J. and J. T. Kadonaga, Role of nucleosomal cores and histone H1 in regulation of transcription by polymerase II. Science 254:243, 1991.

17 Nucleosome Positioning
Model of activation and antirepression asserts that transcription factors can cause antirepression by: Removing nucleosomes that obscure the promoter Preventing initial nucleosome binding to the promoter Both actions are forms of nucleosome positioning – activators force nucleosomes to take up positions around, not within, promoters

18 Nucleosome-Free Zones
Nucleosome positioning would result in nucleosome-free zones in the control regions of active genes Assessment in a circular chromosome can be difficult without some type of marker

19 Detecting DNase-Hypersensitive Regions
Active genes tend to have DNase-hypersensitive control regions Part of this hypersensitivity is due to absence of nucleosomes

20 Histone Acetylation Histone acetylation occurs in both cytoplasm and nucleus Cytoplasmic acetylation carried out by HAT B (histone acetyltransferase, HAT) Prepares histones for incorporation into nucleosomes Acetyl groups later removed in nucleus Nuclear acetylation of core histone N-terminal tails Catalyzed by HAT A Correlates with transcription activation Coactivators of HAT A found which may allow loosening of association between nucleosomes and gene’s control region Attracts bromodomain proteins, essential for transcription

21 Histone Deacetylation
Transcription repressors bind to DNA sites and interact with corepressors which in turn bind to histone deacetylases Repressors Unliganded nuclear receptors Mad-Max Corepressors NCoR/SMRT SIN3 Histone deacetylases - HDAC1 and 2

22 Ternary Protein Complexes
Assembly of complex brings histone deacetylases close to nucleosomes Deacetylation of core histones allows Histone basic tails to bind strongly to DNA, histones in neighboring nucleosomes This inhibits transcription

23 Activation and Repression
Source: Adapted from Wolfe, A.P., Sinful repression. Nature 387:16-17. Deacetylation of core histones removes binding sites for bromodomain proteins that are essential for transcription activation

24 Chromatin Remodeling Activation of many eukaryotic genes requires chromatin remodeling Several protein complexes carry this out All have ATPase harvesting energy from ATP hydrolysis for use in remodeling Remodeling complexes are distinguished by ATPase component

25 Remodeling Complexes SWI/SNF ISWI In mammals, has BRG1 as ATPase
9-12 BRG1-associated factors (BAFs) A highly conserved BAF is called BAF 155 or 170 Has a SANT domain responsible for histone binding This helps SWI/SNF bind nucleosomes ISWI Have a SANT domain Also have SLIDE domain involved in DNA binding

26 SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling

27 Mechanism of Chromatin Remodeling
Mechanism of chromatin remodeling involves: Mobilization of nucleosomes Loosening of association between DNA and core histones Catalyzed remodeling of nucleosomes involves formation of distinct conformations of nucleosomal DNA/core histones when contrasted with: Uncatalyzed DNA exposure in nucleosomes Simple nucleosome sliding along a DNA stretch

28 Remodeling in Yeast HO Gene Activation
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) can reveal the order of binding of factors to a gene during activation As HO gene is activated: First factor to bind is Swi5 Followed by SWI/SNF and SAGA containing HAT Gcn5p Next general transcription factors and other proteins bind Chromatin remodeling is among the first steps in activation of this gene Order could be different in other genes

29 Chromatin Immunoprecipitation

30 Remodeling in the Human IFN-b Gene: The Histone Code
The combination of histone modifications on a given nucleosome near a gene’s control region affects efficiency of that gene’s transcription This code is epigenetic, not affecting the base sequence of DNA itself Activators in the IFN-b enhanceosome can recruit a HAT (GCN5) HAT acetylates some Lys on H3 and H4 in a nucleosome at the promoter Protein kinase phosphorylates Ser on H3 This permits acetylation of another Lys on H3

31 Remodeling in the Human IFN-b Gene: TF Binding
Remodeling allows TFIID to bind 2 acetylated Lys in the nucleosomes through the dual bromodomain in TAFII250 TFIID binding Bends the DNA Moves remodeled nucleosome aside Paves the way for transcription to begin

32 Heterochromatin Euchromatin: relatively extended and open chromatin that is potentially active Heterochromatin: very condensed with its DNA inaccessible Microscopically appears as clumps in higher eukaryotes Repressive character able to silence genes as much as 3 kb away

33 Heterochromatin and Silencing
Formation of at tips of yeast chromosomes (telomeres) with silencing of the genes is the telomere position effect (TPE) Depends on binding of proteins RAP1 to telomeric DNA Recruitment of proteins in this order: SIR3 SIR4 SIR2

34 SIR Proteins Heterochromatin at other locations in chromosome also depends on the SIR proteins SIR3 and SIR4 interact directly with histones H3 and H4 in nucleosomes Acetylation of Lys 16 on H4 in nucleosomes prevents interaction with SIR3 Blocks heterochromatin formation Histone acetylation also works in this way to promote gene activity

35 Histone Methylation Methylation of Lys 9 in N-terminal tail of H3 attracts HP1 This recruits a histone methyltransferase Methylates Lys 9 on a neighboring nucleosome Propagates the repressed, heterochromatic state Methylation of Lys and Arg side chains in core histones can have either repressive or activating effects

36 Modification Interactions
The modifications shown above the tail are activating Ser phosphorylation Lys acetylation Modification below the tail (Lys methylations) is repressive

37 Modification Combinations
Methylations occur in a given nucleosome in combination with other histone modifications: Acetylations Phosphorylations Ubiquitylations Each particular combination can send a different message to the cell about activation or repression of transcription One histone modification can also influence other, nearby modifications

38 Nucleosomes and Transcription Elongation
An important transcription elongation facilitator is FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) Composed of 2 subunits: Spt16 Binds to H2A-H2B dimers Has acid-rich C-terminus essential for these nucleosome remodeling activities SSRP1 binds to H3-H4 tetramers Facilitates transcription through a nucleosome by promoting loss of at least one H2A-H2B dimer from the nucleosome Also acts as a histone chaperone promoting re-addition of H2A-H2B dimer to a nucleosome that has lost such a dimer

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