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U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey New approaches afforded by PIT tag technology have yielded important answers about fish behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey New approaches afforded by PIT tag technology have yielded important answers about fish behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey New approaches afforded by PIT tag technology have yielded important answers about fish behavior and habitat needs Patrick J. Connolly, Ian G. Jezorek, Kyle D. Martens, and M. Brady Allen

2 Project Locations: Current and Recent Past A Compendium of Questions Addressed and Findings Methow: Steelhead, Chinook, Mountain whitefish, Bull trout Jarbidge: Bull trout SE NV: Big Spring spinedace Little Colorado: Humpback chub Wind: Steelhead White Salmon: Rainbow trout Klickitat: Steelhead, Chinook Rock Creek: Steelhead, Coho Hood: Steelhead, Chinook Deschutes: Chinook Umatilla: Steelhead, Chinook You are here

3 Our First Installment: Rattlesnake Creek August 2001

4 Using PIT tag technology to assess effectiveness of small dam removal in Beaver Creek, WA Before After

5 Effectiveness? Juvenile O. mykiss and other salmonids were able to move upstream and over the Rock Vortex Weir. Fish passing the treatment section moved more slowly at low discharge versus high discharge (Χ 2 = , P = 0.046). But no such difference was found for fish moving through the control sections (Χ 2 = 0.023, P = 0.880). Martens, K.D., and P.J. Connolly Effectiveness of a Redesigned Water Diversion using Rock Vortex Weirs to Enhance Longitudinal Connectivity for Small Salmonids. NAJFM 30: Flow (m 3 /s) Distance/ time moved Control Treatment

6 ____________________________________ Measuring performance of two stationary interrogation systems for detecting downstream and upstream movement of PIT-tagged salmonids Connolly, P.J., I.G. Jezorek, K.D. Martens, and E.F. Prentice NAJFM 28: _______________________________________________ _

7 Array A Array B Array C Flow EventsMillings

8 What’s it take to declare: Detection Efficiency = 67% +/-12% with 95% confidence (Caveats and qualifiers: For upstream moving rainbow trout with 12-mm SST PIT tags, when all antennas running at low noise, and at flows less than 20 cfs) ?

9 Using PIT tags to investigate timing and extent of movement by Big Spring Spinedace in Meadow Valley Wash, NV

10 With a network of instream detectors, we demonstrated: The importance of a spring fed tributary to life history needs. BSSD were able to travel over 1 km within the system. Important implications for ongoing stream restoration and translocation planning. Jezorek, I. G., and P. J. Connolly Distribution and movement of Big Spring spinedace (Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis) in Condor Canyon, Meadow Valley Wash, Nevada. Western North American Naturalist 73:

11 Using PIT tag technology to assess juvenile salmonid production in side channels of the Methow River, WA At low flow: Disconnected Partially connected Fully connected

12 N=6N=2 Steelhead (H = 0.421, P=0.810, df=2) Chinook (H = 0.046, P = 0.966, df=2) Coho (H= 6.966, P = 0.031, df=2) Smolt production in side channels based on PIT tag detections in the Columbia River Martens, K. D., and P.J. Connolly Juvenile anadromous salmonid production in upper Columbia River side channels with different levels of hydrological connection. TAFS 143: Smolt production rate

13 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Using PIT tag technology to assess distribution and movement of bull trout in the Jarbidge River, NV

14 The network of PIT tag interrogation systems

15 Bull Trout Movements Findings:  Strong connectivity between spawning areas, mainstem, and between forks.  Management implication – population more connected and more abundant than realized.

16 Using PIT tagging and otolith chemistry to assess movement, age, and growth of mountain whitefish in the Methow Subbasin

17 Movements revealed by Otolith microchemistry (Strontium ratio) SR : SR Distance from center of otolith (µm) Time and age of fish

18 PIT tagging =========> Record of Future Movements + <========= Otolith chemistry Record of Past Movements Benjamin, J. R., L. A. Wetzel, K. D. Martens, K. Larsen, and P. J. Connolly Spatio-temporal variability in movement, age, and growth of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) in a river network based upon PIT tagging and otolith chemistry. CJFAS 71:

19 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey fish distribution, growth, and survival in Rock Creek, WA Using PIT-tag technology to assess fish distribution, growth, and survival in Rock Creek, WA

20 The network of PIT tag interrogation systems

21 Rock Creek: Findings ________________________________________________ Overshooting of adult steelhead natal to Rock Creek 67% overshooting past at least one dam (>McNary Dam, 102 km) As far up as: Priest Rapids Dam (CR, 271 km) Ice Harbor Dam (SR, 170 km) One adult STH went: 8 dams upstream 5 dams downstream Strays: Hatchery & Wild adult steelhead from Snake R. As much as 84% of spawners ________________________________________________

22 Using PIT-tag technology to estimate adult steelhead returns to Trout Creek following removal of Hemlock Dam Wind River Subbasin Trout Creek watershed Ladder and trap removed in Required a new method to count adult steelhead. WDFW + USGS effort. Hemlock Dam

23 Trout Creek, WA (Wind River subbasin) 2014: Installed a second PIT tag interrogation system in the upper portion of the Trout Creek. Detection system Snorkel section Trout Creek

24 Paradise Cr. Upper Wind River Trapper Cr. Crater Cr. Layout Cr. Martha Cr. Trout Creek Using PIT tag technology to investigate life-history strategies of juvenile steelhead in the Wind River, WA Tagging of Age-0 and age-1 steelhead parr in headwaters. Recaptures through electrofishing, and WDFW smolt (n=4) and adult trap (n=1). Detections at instream readers (n=6) as juveniles and adults. Detections at Bonneville Dam as smolts and adults.

25 Wind River: Questions being addressed about parr life history ________________________________________________________ What portion of parr stay in their natal stream up to the time of smolting? What portion of parr move to downstream areas for rearing an extra year or more before smolting? What other life history patterns are evident? (diversity of expression) What factors affect these patterns? (e.g., temperature, food, density, etc.) _________________________________________________________

26 I. What more is needed to gain information breakthroughs? _______________________________________________ Add-ons Temperature sensor Predation signal Shed tag signal Improved performance Increased detection range Increased power efficiency New power sources and methods Enhanced saltwater detection ability Smaller tags Increased durability of antennas Reduced noise interference ______________________________________________

27 I. What more is needed to gain information breakthroughs? __________________________________________ Add-ons Temperature sensor Predation signal Shed tag signal Improved performance Increased detection range Increased power efficiency New power sources and methods Enhanced saltwater detection ability Smaller tags Increased durability of antennas Reduced noise interference __________________________________________

28 Weir Low High Low High Low Smolt trap Flow level PIT-tag Int. Sys. 24-7!

29 Weir Low High Low High Low Smolt trap Flow Level & Time PIT-tag Int. Sys. 2x3 A1 A2 XX XX XX X X X X X X X X XXX

30 II. What more is needed to gain information breakthroughs? ______________________________________________ Improved analysis tools Detection efficiency analysis tools for compromised systems (e.g., when only 5 of 6 antennas working) Automated statistical analysis tools (e.g., for estimating behavior, survival, and abundance) Power analysis tools for allocation of effort and dollars: Increasing detection efficiency at a site vs. Adding more detector sites vs. Tagging more fish ______________________________________________

31 Shameless advertizing for Challenge Prize Booth Make our PIT Tag World Better!

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35 Tagging location (2010; 306 mm) Methow River Columbia River Entiat River Wells Dam Rocky Reach Dam Chewuch River Twisp River a) Tagging location (2009; 273 mm) Methow River Columbia River Entiat River Wells Dam Rocky Reach Dam Chewuch River Twisp River b) Tagging location (2010; 269 mm) Methow River Columbia River Entiat River Wells Dam Rocky Reach Dam Chewuch River Twisp River c) Movements of Mountain Whitefish Revealed by PIT tag detections Localized Full Methow Methow R. to Entiat R. and back

36 Parr detections at WRU (upper Wind) Parr detections at PAR Tributary / headwater Mid-subbasin Paradise


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