Presentation on theme: "Awatif B. Al-Backer. Inflammation Definition: It is a protective response against injury which can be chemicals, mechanical, infectious, or immunological."— Presentation transcript:
Inflammation Definition: It is a protective response against injury which can be chemicals, mechanical, infectious, or immunological.
Awatif B. Al-Backer Signs of inflammation 1. Erythema 2. Oedema 3. Tenderness & pain Chemical mediators of inflammation 1. Bradykinin 2. Leukotriene 3. Prostaglandin
Awatif B. Al-Backer Cellular events during inflammation 1.Acute stage: Vasodilatation and increase muscular permeability due to the release of histamine & 5HT leading to oedema. 2.Exudative stage: Migration of the leukocytes to the site of inflammation. 3.Repair stage: Proliferation of fibroblast or formation of new connective tissue.
Awatif B. Al-Backer Classification of the Anti-inflammator Drug (AIDs) TypeSAIDsNSAIDsExamples Hydrocortisone, dexamethasone Aspirin, Paracetamol, & Indomethacin MOA Induce protein called lipocortin which cause inhibition of phospholipase A2 Inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme leading to decrease prostaglandin biosynthesis (PGE1 & PGI2)
Awatif B. Al-Backer Phospholipids Arachidonic Acid (+) COX PG NSAIDs (-) (+) Phospholipase A2 (-) Leukotrienes Lipooxygenase PAF (platelet aggregating factors) N.B. Aspirin is contraindicated for asthemitic patients because it inhibits the COX enzyme shifting the reaction to the lipooxygenase pathway leading to increase the leukotrienes production which will cause bronchocostrictions. Site of Action of The Anti-inflammatory Drugs
Awatif B. Al-Backer Screening Methods for The Antiinflammatory Drugs 1.Rat - Paw Oedema Method (Acute stage) 2.Granulation Pouch Method (Exudative stage) 3.Adjuvant induce arthritis.
Awatif B. Al-Backer Hot – plate Materials:- Animal: Rats Irritant substance: Carragenin (2%) Drug used: Indomethacin (2 mg/kg)
Awatif B. Al-Backer RESULTSResults Control Groups Treated Groups PositionRightLeftRightLeft 1---------------- 2---------------- 3---------------- MeanABCD
Awatif B. Al-Backer CALCULATIONS * % of oedema produced by carragenin alone = A – B. 100 = X % * % of oedema produced by carragenin after treatment = C – D. 100= Y % * % Reduction of oedema by indomethacin = X – Y = % NOTE: A, C = Mean right for control B, D = Mean left for control B D