Presentation on theme: "1 KSU, Collage of Medicine, Department of pharmacology. Prepared by : Narmeen Al-Bashrawi. Supervised by : Dr Hanan Hajar."— Presentation transcript:
1 KSU, Collage of Medicine, Department of pharmacology. Prepared by : Narmeen Al-Bashrawi. Supervised by : Dr Hanan Hajar.
2 Objective: Introduction to cyclosporine. Chemical structure. Physical properties. Formulation. Pharmacodynamic of cyclosporine. Pharmacokinetic of cyclosporine. Indication. Contraindicating. Adverse effects. Drug food interacting. Drug – drug interaction.
3 Introduction: Cyclosporine was first isolated from the fungus Tolypocladium inflatum and originally thought to be an antifungal antibiotic with minimal clinical value.
8 Physical properties: Cyclosporine have a molecular weight of 1202.6 and occurs as a white solid with a melting point of 148°C to 151°C (natural) and 149°C to 150°C (synthetic). slightly soluble in water and soluble in organic solvents.
13 Mechanism of action Cyclosporine is lipophilic peptide that easily crosses the membranes cells, such as T lymphocytes. Its effects depending on binding to cytosol proteins (cyclophilin). The drug- immunophilin complex in turn bind to calcineurine.
14 Mechanism of action cont As a result, the transcription factor is enabled to enter the nucleus, which is the essential step for the activation and transcription of certain genes interleukin-2 by T lymphocyte. leading to Reduce the migration of monocytes to the targt and helping to protect the transplanted organ from normally aggressive host defense mechanisms.
17 2-Pharmalogical effects: kidney: In the kidney, cyclosporine produced structural and functional changes predominantly affecting the: proximal tubule The afferent arteriole. Increased thronboxane A2 levels cause renal vasoconstriction and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells into the intimae. Reduced the release of vasodilatory kinins. So, Cyclosporine has an indirect vasoconstrictor effect, which has been associated with hypertension and renal dysfunction
18 Pharmalogical effects cont cardiovascular system : Blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy: The principle cause of hypertension after organ transplantation is the treatment with a cyclosporine which is (CIN). The price mechanism(s) are not known.
19 Pharmalogical effects cont Lipid metabolisms and athergenic profile: The pathogenesis of impaired lipid metabolism with cyclosporine has not fully elucidated. Glucose metabolism: Cyclosporine maintain insulin resistance but decrease insulin secretion (may predispose to post tranplantation diabetes mellitus PTDM) dose-depended and reversible.
20 Pharmalogical effects cont 3-Others: Dose-dependent elevation of liver function test without histological abnormality. Activation of sympathetic system. does not cause bone marrow suppression.
22 Pharmacokintic Properties Absorption: Absorption is dependent on the presence of bile and there for prone to variability. the drug is poorly absorbed, Variable and incomplete from gastrointestinal tract after oral administration with a bioavailability of about 30% (range 5% to 70%). The original cyclosporine formula showed high intra- and inter-patient variability and low bioavailability.
23 Pharmacokintic Properties cont A microemulsion Neural was introduced To address the wide intra and interindividual differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the oil-based formulation of cyclosporine (Sandimmune).
25 Different between sandimmune and Neoral SandimmuneNeoral FORMULA Oil-based formulamicroemulsion ABSORPTION Need more bileLess bile require FOOD Increase absorptionLess affected BIOAVALIBILITY 30% (5-70)Better PEAK 3.5 h1.2-2h VARABILITY MoreLess OUT COME Improve outcome(less acute rejection)
26 Pharmacokintic properties cont C2 monitoring allow a more accurate and reliable evaluation of cyclosporine exposure Maintaining organ transplant patients. Identify a significant percentage of overexposed subject. Possibly limiting the rate of progression of chronic graft dysfunction.
28 Pharmacokintic properties cont 3-Metabolism: cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP3A4) in the liver (mainly), and for leaser extent in small intestine. Glycoprotein P is a transport protein present in the brush border of the human small intestine that functions to pump substrates, including cyclosporine, back into the intestinal lumen against an absorption gradient.
29 Pharmacokinetic properties cont Variation in liver CYP3A4 is the major con tributor to overall variability in oral Cyclosporine metabolism. Changes in Cyclosporine formulations may reduce but will not entirely eliminate significant intra- and interaction differences in cyclosporine metabolism.
31 Pharmacokintic properties cont Excretion: Elimination is primarily biliary. only 6% of the dose (parent drug and metabolites) excreted in the urine. 0.1% of a cyclosporine dose is excreted unchanged in the urine
33 Uses of Cyclosporine cont 1- Systemic indication
34 Uses of Cyclosporine cont Organ transplantation to prevent graft rejection in kidney, liver, heart, lung, and combined heart-lung transplants. It is used to prevent rejection following bone marrow transplantation and Prophylaxis of graft- versus-host disease. Treatment of chronic rejection in patients previously treated with other immunosuppressant.
35 Uses of Cyclosporine cont A treatment of autoimmune diseases. Cyclosporine therapy in severe ulcerative colitis, refractory to steroids. Tacrolimus – related adverse effects. Psoriasis. Atopic dermatitis. Rheumatoid arthritis. Nephrotic syndrome(steroid-dependent and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome ).
36 Uses of Cyclosporine cont Cyclosporine remains as the mainstay of anti rejection treatments in patients especially undergoing solid organ transplants.
37 Uses of Cyclosporine cont 2- Opthalmic indication
38 Uses of Cyclosporine cont Cyclosporine is useful for patients with various inflammatory ocular surface disorders. reversing inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal glands. improving the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (treatment). Neurotrophic keratopathy. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis.
40 Contraindication of Cyclosporine Sensitivity to cyclosporine Malignancy, current or Premalignant skin lesions. Chickenpox, existing or recent, or Herpes zoster (risk of severe generalized disease). Hepatic function impairment Hyperkalemia hypertension Infection Malabsorption Renal function impairment (dose reduction).
42 Cyclosporine adverse effect 1-Cyclosporine Nephrotoxicity: Cyclosporine toxicity is classified in two phases: An acute, functional, dose-dependent decrease in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and A chronic, dose- independent form with structural changes leading to a progressive and persistent decrease in GFR.
43 Cyclosporine adverse effect cont Nephrotoxicity correlates with drug exposure, C2 measurements of blood concentrations early after transplantation (unlike trough levels C0) are likely to serve as an accurate tool for the avoidance of both under immunosuppression and toxicity.
44 Cyclosporine adverse effect cont 2-Cardiovascular toxicity Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity. arterial hypertension in 50% to 80%. high total cholesterol level. high low density lipoprotein(LDL). de novo post trasplant diabetes mellitus.
45 Cyclosporine adverse effect cont 3-hypertention: Chronic arterial hypertension, increasing with time after transplantation, is associated with decrease allograft survival. 4-hyperlipidaemia. 5- De novo post transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM): Diabetes mellitus has become one of the most common causes of renal failure.
46 Cyclosporine adverse effect cont 6-Gingival hypertrophy : Gingival hyperplasia is usually reversible within 6 months after withdrawal of cyclosporine.
49 Cyclosporine adverse effect cont Central Nervous System: convulsions, headache Autonomic Nervous System: Paresthesia SKIN: Hirsutism, Acne. vulnerability to opportunistic fungal and viral infections.
50 Cyclosporine adverse effect cont In general about adverse effect: Cyclosporine had a narrow therapeutic range (fine line between adequate immunosuppressant and the risk of drug- induced side effect). Variable Cyclosporine exposure is now believed to be a key determinant of acute rejection, chronic rejection,which is the principle cause of late graft loss. Thus optimal therapy with cyclosporine requires predictor of drug exposure and a clear rang of therapeutic level.
53 Cyclosporine Interactions with Dietary Supplements Vitamin E Combining vitamin E and cyclosporine requires medical supervision to avoid cyclosporine toxicity. Omega 3 fatty acid.( reduce high blood pressure). Food ( increases the absorption of cyclosporine ) Grape fruit juice ( increase in cyclosporine blood ).
54 Cyclosporine Interactions 2-Drug – drug interactin
55 Cyclosporine Interactions cont Cyclosporine is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P-450 3A. Substances that inhibit this enzyme could decrease metabolism and increase cyclosporine concentrations.
56 Cyclosporine Interactions cont Drugs That May Potentiate Renal Dysfunction AntibioticsAntineoplastic Anti- Inflammatory Drugs Gastrointestin al Agents GentamicinMelphalanAzapropazonCimetidine TobramycinDiclofenac Ranitidine Ranitidine Vancomyci- n AntifungalsNaproxen Trimethopri -m Amphotericin B. Sulindac Immunosuppres sives Sulfametho- xazole ketoconazole Colchicine ColchicineTacrolimus
58 Cyclosporine Interactions cont AntibioticsAnticonvulsants Other Drugs/Dietary Supplements NafcillinCarbamazepineOctreotide RifampinPhenobarbitalTiclopidine PhenytoinOrlistat Drugs/Dietary Supplements That Decrease Cyclosporine Concentrations
59 Cyclosporine Interactions cont Note that: Note that: Reduction in the blood concentrations of cyclosporine, resulting in subtherapeutic levels, rejection of transplanted organs, and graft loss. Cyclosporine may reduce the clearance of digoxin. Severe digitalis toxicity has been seen within days of starting cyclosporine in several patients taking digoxin.