Presentation on theme: "Understanding Epidemics Site introduction Background to the site Specification links Site content Site navigation."— Presentation transcript:
Understanding Epidemics Site introduction Background to the site Specification links Site content Site navigation
Background to the Project Funded by The Wellcome Trust: Public Engagement with Science Awards Developed by researchers in the Department of Geography, The University of Liverpool: Dr. Bethan Evans, Dr. Andy Morse, Prof. Bill Gould, Prof. Bob Woods. Project title: ‘Enhancing the Public Understanding of Epidemics: a project to prepare and test learning materials for school and college students and teachers.’ Web site title: Understanding Epidemics Back to main menu
Specification links Back to main menu The content on the Understanding Epidemics web site links to the following AS/A2 specifications. Click on the relevant one to see more details. GeographyBiology AQA (Geog A)AQA (Biology A) AQA (Geog B)AQA (Biology B) EDEXCEL (Geog B)OCR WELSH
AQA Geog A Although more applicable to the Geography B specification, epidemics, namely HIV/AIDS are important in the geography A syllabus. Module 5: Challenge and Change in the Urban Environment, section 14.1: Population Pressure and Resource Management. Many of the issues discussed in the Basics section of the web site would aid the understanding of demography required for this module. Module 5, section 14.1: The Resource Response: Food Shortages in the LEDW. In the HIV/AIDS section, discussion of the relationship between poverty and the impact of HIV/AIDS on different communities and people in Africa (particularly the impact on food security issues) contributes to this module. Tourism & Development content in Module 5, section 14.3: Recreation and Tourism The HIV/AIDS section also contributes to this module as it requires consideration of the social costs of tourism in the LEDW ‘including exploitation of sex industry, health risks including AIDS’. Back to specification index
AQA Geog B Module 4: Global Change, section 13.2 People and the Environment: Hazards. The requirement to consider the global distribution, international and national effects of a transmittable disease could be fulfilled by any of the diseases considered on the Understanding Epidemics website. The website splits discussion of the diseases in line with the specification’s focus on origins, impacts, control and prediction (modelling). Case studies are provided which allow discussion of differences between rural and urban areas, and between MEDCs and LEDCs. The HIV/AIDS pages focus mainly on social and cultural differences and the malaria pages on the interaction between physical geography (climate) and disease. Module 4: Global Change, section 13.1 Physical Geography: Seasonal change The climatic information on the Malaria pages (specifically the geography section) provide resources of use in this module as the specification requires consideration of ‘s easonal changes within the tropical regions of Africa with wet and dry seasons and the influence on hydrology and ecology’. Back to specification index
EDEXCEL Geog B EDEXCEL Geog B Continued on next page Unit 2: Managing Change in Rural Environments Section 2.3 Process and change in rural environments: calls for an understanding of ‘poverty in areas of outmigration and disease in LEDCs e.g. AIDS in Uganda’ including examples to reflect MEDC and LEDC differences. The web site provides specific examples from MEDCs and LEDCs and contains discussion of the role of rural-urban circular migration in the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa. Section 2.4 Rural planning issues: causes and consequences of the ‘cycle of rural deprivation’. Discussion with examples given on web site of the impact of HIV/AIDS on rural poverty, food security and links to wider developmental issues. Unit 5: Researching Global Futures Option 5.6 Feeding the world’s people: Examples could be used from the HIV/AIDS impacts pages, which discuss the impact of HIV/AIDS on food security in Africa. Option 5.7 Health and Welfare:The web site can contribute to all areas of this option which requires consideration of: ‘geographical patterns of health and disease; health and standards of living; the impact of disease on societies; health, welfare and societies’. Each of the disease pages are structured around these issues giving up to date case studies along with general explanations. The main links are with Unit 5: There are also links with other sections of the syllabus:
EDEXCEL Geog B (cont) Unit 4:Global Challenge Section Atmospheric processes: The Malaria pages on the website (specifically the geography pages) contain resources on temperature and rainfall variations in Africa which may be useful in teaching this module, with specific mention of the possible impacts of global warming on the global distribution of malaria. Section 4.8 The implications of population change: The HIV/AIDS pages (specifically the Impacts pages) provide discussion (with examples) of the impact of the loss of people of working age due to HIV/AIDS and the impact of national migration on the spread of HIV/AIDS. Specification key concepts include ‘coping with population growth (providing housing, work and services)’ with specific reference to ‘AIDS in East Africa’ as an example. Section 4.9 The global challenge of migration: specification calls for an understanding of the positive and negative impacts of international migration. Web site contains a discussion of the possible impact on HIV/AIDS prevalence in the UK of people who have been infected in other countries. Back to specification index
AQA (Biology A- Human Biology) Back to specification index Module 3: Pathogens and Disease 12.1 Bacteria & viruses: The structure of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and its replication. See HIV/AIDS biology pages Parasites and Parasitism: The principal adaptations of parasites to their way of life as illustrated by Plasmodium (malaria): ‘their ability to survive in the hostile environment within the host’; ‘reduction of locomotory and other structures’; ‘modification of reproduction and the life cycle associated with infecting a new host’ See malaria biology pages. Particularly detailed section on the parasite lifecycle.
AQA (Biology B) Module 7: Microbes and Disease Bacterial disease: Transmission of food-borne and water-borne infection. Examples given on Basics and Historical Epidemics pages with reference to Cholera Viral Disease: ‘The structural features of a virus, exemplified by HIV’; ‘The course of infection, signs, symptoms and transmission of AIDS’; ‘The process of replication of HIV’ ‘How HIV causes AIDS’ Strategies for ‘preventing the spread of HIV’. These issues are discussed on the HIV/AIDS biology and control pages. Module 8: Behaviour and Populations, 15.7 Human Populations and Health Population size and structure: ‘Interpret population growth curves, survival curves and age pyramids’; ‘Calculate population growth from data on birth rate, death rate, emigration and immigration’. These principles are covered in the basics section, and examples using growth curves, age pyramids etc. are given throughout the disease specific pages. AQA Biology B Continued on next page
AQA (Biology B cont.) Module 8: Behaviour and Populations, 15.7 Human Populations and Health (cont.) Social conditions: ‘The influence of food supply, safe drinking water and effective sewage disposal on mortality’. Examples given in Basics section and Historical epidemics section relating to Cholera, and examples are given in the HIV/AIDS section of the influence of social conditions on secondary infections in those with HIV/AIDS. Infectious disease: Key concepts are the transmission of pathogens, natural immunity and acquired immunity The interpretation of ‘information relating to the incidence and mortality of diseases’, and evaluation of ‘the effectiveness of immunisation programmes and changes in social conditions in preventing epidemics’. The basics pages introduce these issues, then all disease pages deal with immunity and public health programmes including behavioural and immunisation campaigns (specifically biology and control sections). Back to specification index
OCR Biology 5.2 Module 2802: Human Health and Disease Introduction to Health and Disease ‘Describe and explain the differences between standards of health in developed and developing countries’. This is discussed throughout the website. Specific emphasis is given to this on the HIV/AIDS pages. ‘Explain the terms pandemic, epidemic and endemic’. These terms are explained in the Basics pages, and in the glossary Infectious diseases: ‘Describe the causes and means of transmission of Cholera, malaria, AIDS/HIV and TB’. ‘Assess the worldwide importance of these diseases’. ‘Describe the roles of social, economic and biological factors in the prevention and control of these diseases’. HIV/AIDS and Malaria have dedicated sections of the site which deal with biology (incl. transmission), global importance and distribution, and socio-economic and biological controls. Cholera is dealt with on the historical epidemics pages, and TB is discussed within the HIV/AIDS section. Back to specification index
Welsh Examining Board Biology 4.6 Pathogens, spread of human disease and control of infection (a) Causes ‘Meaning of the following terms: infectious disease, carrier, animal reservoir, endemic, epidemic, vaccine, antibiotic, resistance, vector, toxin, antigenic(sero)types’. Some of these terms are defined in the Basics section, all are defined in the glossary. Cholera ‘Source of infection, mode of transmission, prevention and control methods’. Cholera is a case study disease discussed in the Historical Epidemics section of the website. Malaria: ‘main stages of the lifecycle of Plasmodium’. ‘Illustrate suitable points at which the cycle can be broken by preventing transmission, controlling lifecycle of vector’. ‘Advantages and disadvantages of control methods of Malaria’. ‘Plasmodium is susceptible to some drug treatment when outside cells in the blood stream’ Detailed information on the lifecycle of Plasmodium and the relationship to the vector given on the biology pages of the Malaria section. Also information on control and prevention of transmission on the control pages of the Malaria section. Back to specification index
Site Content Back to main menu Main pages The main pages of the website have been created to give a basic understanding of epidemics and to give some examples of specific epidemic diseases. Wherever possible, up-to-date data are used to give examples and provide case studies using images, graphs and maps where appropriate. Sources and links are provided throughout and at the end of each section to allow further research in more depth if necessary. A printer friendly (black and white) version of each section is provided by clicking on the yellow box in the top left of each page). Support pages A glossary, and an index of diseases are provided to support the main content of the site. A site map is also provided to allow easy navigation. There is also this teachers’ pack and a users’ pack provided. Test material While the text can be read and used on its own, it is designed to be read in parallel with the exercises that are associated with each section of the web site. These exercises are designed to test understanding of the factual information and concepts presented in the text. These are both incorporated in the pages and there are also specific ‘test yourself’ pages. Epiblog The epiblog can be accessed from the home page. It is created to provide up-to-date case studies and examples by linking to media reports on current issues surrounding epidemiology.
Site Navigation There are three main levels to the site: Top level At the top level, the site is split into 7 sections. These are navigable via the red and blue buttons which appear at the top of each main page: Second level Below this, each of these sections is split into further individual sections. These too can be navigated via a row of red and blue buttons which appear at the top of each page in that section. The two main disease sections (HIV/AIDS and Malaria) have a similar structure: introduction, emergence, biology, geography, impacts, control and sources. The basics section and other sections have slightly different structures depending on content but these key themes remain central to the discussion. Bottom level Many of the pages contain links to case study pages or pages showing images in greater detail. These pages open in new windows (it may be necessary to maximise this window). To return to the main subject page, the window can be closed by clicking on the ‘close window’ link at the top and bottom of each page. Site Navigation Continued on next page
Site Navigation (cont.) Home page To return to the home page, click on the understanding epidemics logo which is on the top left of each page: The home page then contains links to the supporting pages: the test pages, the epiblog, glossary, index of diseases, site map, site information (including contact information) and users’ packs. Site map This provides an index of all pages allowing easy navigation. Back to main menu